philosophy 111 midterm review

philosophy 111 midterm review - Critical and Historical...

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Critical and Historical Introduction to Philosophy Review Sheet for Midterm Exam The midterm exam will consist of two parts and will be held on Friday, October 13. Part I will contain multiple choice questions that will cover some basic terms and issues that we have covered so far this semester. The questions will be limited to the following terms and issues: Epistemology – what is knowledge? Metaphysics – concerned with the ultimate nature of existence Normative Ethics – investigates moral questions (Is abortion moral or not?). Meta-Ethics – where do our values come from? Moral Metaphysics – investigates the nature + existence of moral value. (are there answers to moral questions?) (EO + MS). Moral Epistemology – investigates whether we can know the answers to moral questions; and if so, how? (EMS) Moral skepticism – any view that denies ethical objectivism. Epistemic moral skepticism* - we either don’t or can’t know whether our moral convictions are true or not. Epistemic skepticism – we either do or don’t know anything Ethical Objectivism – There exists a moral reality that’s independent of our moral convictions and determines whether those convictions are true or false. Moral Nihilism – There are no moral truths whatsoever Error Theory / Noncognitivism / Ethical Subjectivism / Ethical Relativism Error Theory – we all sincerely hold or believe that there is an objective moral reality that our moral convictions try to capture but in fact there is no such reality, and so all our moral convictions are systematically false. Noncognitivism – our moral convictions are merely expressions of our feelings/emotions, and so they are neither true or false. Ethical Subjectivism – claims that there are moral truths, but that each person has the final say about what they are. Ethical Relativism – allows for moral truth, but places its source within each culture, rather than in personal opinion. Whatever society says, goes. The Metaethical Challenge – the challenge of identifying what objective reality or fact there is for our moral convictions to reflect. The Delian League – a group of Greek City-States that formed to fight Persia. Lead by Athens because of their very strong navy. The Peloponnesian War – War between Athens and Sparta which lasted from 431-404 BC. Athens lost. Athens was devastated and the population was decimated. Sparta imposed a new government on Athens. The Thirty Tyrants – An oligarchy of 30 men was created in 404 BC. It worked for awhile but then chaos occurred. All the tyrants were killed within a year. Democracy was restored in 403 BC. The names of two notorious associates of Socrates and what they did to be notorious
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course PHL 107 taught by Professor White during the Fall '07 term at Creighton.

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philosophy 111 midterm review - Critical and Historical...

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