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Pacific Ocean - Wikipedia.pdf - 5/4/22, 10:03 AM Pacific...

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5/4/22, 10:03 AMPacific Ocean - Wikipedia1/24Pacific OceanCoordinates0°N 160°WSurfacearea165,250,000 km2(63,800,000 sq mi)Averagedepth4,280 m (14,040 ft)Max. depth10,911 m (35,797 ft)Watervolume710,000,000 km3(170,000,000 cu mi)IslandsList of islandsSettlementsAcapulco,Anadyr,Anchorage,Apia,Auckland,Brisbane,Buenaventura,Callao,Christchurch,Concepción,Davao City,Dunedin,Esmeraldas,Guayaquil,Hong Kong,Honolulu,Hualien City,Jakarta,Legazpi City,Lima,Los Angeles,Machala,Magadan,Manila,Manta,Mazatlán,Melbourne,NewTaipei City,Nouméa,Osaka,Panama City,Papeete,San FranciscoPacific OceanThePacific Oceanis the largest and deepest of Earth's fiveoceanic divisions. It extends from theArctic Ocean in thenorth to theSouthern Ocean (or, depending on definition, toAntarctica) in the south and is bounded by the continents ofAsia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 squaremiles) in area (as defined with a southern Antarctic border),this largest division of theWorld Ocean—and, in turn, thehydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface andabout 32% of its total surface area, larger than Earth's entirelandareacombined(148,000,000 km2[57,000,000 sq mi]).[1]The centers ofboth theWater Hemisphere and theWestern Hemisphereare in the Pacific Ocean. Ocean circulation (caused by theCoriolis effect) subdivides it[2]into two largely independentvolumesofwater,whichmeetattheequator:theNorth(ern)Pacific OceanandSouth(ern)PacificOcean. TheGalápagos andGilbert Islands, while straddlingtheequator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific.[3]Its mean depth is 4,000 meters (13,000 feet).[4]ChallengerDeep in theMariana Trench, located in the western northPacific, is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of10,928 meters (35,853 feet).[5]The Pacific also contains thedeepest point in theSouthern Hemisphere, theHorizonDeep in theTonga Trench, at 10,823 meters (35,509 feet).[6]The third deepest point on Earth, theSirena Deep, is alsolocated in the Mariana Trench.The western Pacific has many majormarginal seas,including but not limited to theSouth China Sea, theEastChina Sea, theSea of Japan, theSea of Okhotsk, thePhilippine Sea, theCoral Sea,Java Sea and theTasman Sea.EtymologyLargest seas in the Pacific OceanHistoryPrehistoryEarly migrationsCoordinates:0°N 160°WContents
5/4/22, 10:03 AMPacific Ocean - Wikipedia2/24Bay Area,San Diego,Seattle,Sendai,Shanghai,Shizuoka City,Suva,Sydney,Tijuana,Tokyo,Valparaíso,Vancouver,Victoria,Wellington,Vladivostok,Whāngarei,Yokohama,YokosukaEuropean explorationNew ImperialismGeographyBordering countries and territoriesSovereign nationsTerritoriesLandmasses and islandsWater characteristicsClimateGeologyGeological historySeamount chainsEconomyFishingEnvironmental issuesNuclear wasteMajor ports and harborsList of major portsList of seas, gulfs and bays by surface areaList of islands in the PacificSee alsoReferencesFurther readingHistoriographyExternal linksThough the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, theeastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorerVascoNúñez de Balboa crossed theIsthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "Southern Sea"which he namedMar del Sur(in Spanish). The ocean's current name was coined by PortugueseexplorerFerdinand Magellan during the Spanish

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