L09 - The SternGerlach experiment of 1921 showed that the...

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    The Stern-Gerlach experiment of 1921 showed that the  electrons are magnetic with two possible orientations of their  magnetic dipole. This required the introduction of a fourth  quantum number,  m s the  spin quantum number . corresponding to the two possible  orientations of the electron  spin . m s 1 2
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    Table 8.2  Summary of Quantum Numbers of Electrons in Atoms Name Symbol Permitted Values Property principal n positive integers(1,2,3,…) orbital energy (size) angular  momentum l integers from 0 to n-1 orbital shape (The  l  values 0,  1, 2, and 3 correspond to s, p,  d, and f orbitals, respectively.) magnetic m l integers from - l  to 0 to + l orbital orientation spin m s +1/2 or -1/2 direction of e -  spin
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    The Pauli Exclusion Principle, 1925  Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) “No two electrons in an atom or molecule may  have the same set of four quantum numbers.” n l m l m s The Pauli exclusion principle explains how the  electrons in a many-electron atom are  arranged in their respective energy levels and  orbitals.  No more than two electrons can be  accommodated in each orbital. The two electrons in a filled orbital must have  opposite spin.
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    In the hydrogen atom all orbitals  which belong to the same shell  (have the same principal quantum  number  n ) have the same energy.  In many-electron atoms orbitals  which belong to different subshells  (sublevels) have different energies.
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course CHEM 111 taught by Professor Grzegorz during the Spring '08 term at Colorado State.

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L09 - The SternGerlach experiment of 1921 showed that the...

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