L10-1 - Aufbau principle to get the ground state electron...

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    Aufbau   principle : to get the ground  state electron configuration we put  electrons in available orbitals  starting with the lowest energy;  Pauli   exclusion   principle  has to be  obeyed: no more than two  electrons per orbital; electrons in  the same orbital: opposite spins;  Hund’s   rule : if orbitals of the same  energy are available, we maximize  the number of unpaired electrons  with parallel spins.
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    The relation between orbital filling and the periodic table The period number:  value of the highest level. A new period starts with  n s 1  (alkali metal). It ends with  n s 2 n p 6  (noble gas); exception: He, 1s 2 .
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    The  s-block  and  p-block elements   are referred to as the  main group elements.
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    When  ≥ 3,  d -orbitals ( l =2) can exist .  The  transition metals   have valence electrons in ( n-1)d  orbitals. The valence  electron configuration is  typically   ns ( n –1) d x   or  ns ( n –1) d x .
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  Defining metallic and covalent radii Metallic radius: half the distance  between nuclei of adjacent  atoms in a crystal of the  element.  Aluminum: face-centered cubic  lattice. Covalent radius: half the distance between 
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course CHEM 111 taught by Professor Grzegorz during the Spring '08 term at Colorado State.

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L10-1 - Aufbau principle to get the ground state electron...

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