L15 - Types of Chemical Formulas A chemical formula is...

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    Types of Chemical Formulas An  empirical formula  indicates the relative number of atoms of each  element in the compound.  It is the simplest type of formula. A  molecular formula  shows the actual number of atoms of each  element in a molecule of the compound. A structural formula  shows the number of atoms and the bonds  between them, that is, the relative placement and connections of  atoms in the molecule. A  chemical formula  is comprised of element symbols and numerical subscripts  that show the type and number of each atom present in the smallest unit of the  substance. The empirical formula for hydrogen peroxide is HO. The molecular formula for hydrogen peroxide is H 2 O 2 . The structural formula for hydrogen peroxide is H-O-O-H.
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    Ice (solid H 2 O): solid consisting of molecules Ionic solid: solid consisting of ions
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    Common Monoatomic Ions H - hydride Na + sodium H + hydrogen Li + lithium fluoride F - Cs + cesium K + potassium Ag + silver chloride Cl - bromide Br - iodide I - Mg 2+ magnesium Sr 2+ strontium Ca 2+ calcium Zn 2+ zinc Ba 2+ barium Cd 2+ cadmium Al 3+ aluminum +1 +2 +3 Cations Charge Formula Name Anions Charge Formula Name -1 -2 -3 oxide O 2- sulfide S 2- nitride N 3- Common ions are in blue (should be memorized).
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    Some Common Polyatomic Ions Formula Cations NH 4 + Common Anions H 3 O + Formula ammonium hydronium Name Name CH 3 COO -               acetate CN - cyanide OH - hydroxide ClO 3 - chlorate NO 2 - nitrite NO 3 - nitrate MnO 4 -  permanganate CO 3 -2 carbonate CrO 4 -2 chromate Cr 2 O 7 -2 dichromate O 2 -2 oxide SO 4 -2 sulfate PO 4 -3 phosphate
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    Naming  oxoanions Prefixes  Root  Suffixes  Examples root per ate ClO 4 -  perchlorate ate root ClO 3 - chlorate ite root ClO 2 - chlorite ite hypo root ClO - hypochlorite No. of O atoms Figure 2.20
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    Sample Problem 2.8 Determining Names and Formulas of Ionic  Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions
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L15 - Types of Chemical Formulas A chemical formula is...

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