Study questions for Exam

Study questions for Exam - Study questions for Exam#1...

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Study questions for Exam #1 Lecture #1 - Introduction 1. On the average, how many people die each year from natural catastrophes? 40,000 people 2. Which types of catastrophe kill the most people? Earthquakes and tsunami? 3. How many people are estimated to have died in the Banda Aceh earthquake and tsunami last year? 250,000 4. Does the increasing cost of damage caused by natural catastrophes indicate that recently there have been more of them or bigger ones? No just more infrastructure to destory Lecture #2 – Uncertainties in our understanding of natural processes 1. What are 4 different sources of uncertainty in our interpretation of natural events and our understanding of the potential for future natural catastrophes. 1) Unknown processes 2) Our short observational history of natural events 3) Analytical uncertainties in making chronological determinations and correlations of past events 4) The chaotic behavior of natural terrestrial processes 2. How old is the Earth? How old are the Sun and the Moon? 4.6 billion years old (all) 3. How are these ages determined? From rocks found on the moon or geological records 4. What process produces heat inside the Earth and drives mantle convection and plate tectonics? decay of radioactive elements in the Earth 5. Has this heat source been increasing or decreasing since the Earth formed? 6. When did the dinosaurs become extinct? 250 million years ago 7. How many other species died off at approximately the same time? 8. When did early hominoids evolve? Between 2 and 4 million years ago 9. How long is written recorded history? 2,000 years 10. Approximately how long ago were accurate determinations of the age of the earth made and instrumental records of earthquakes and temperature changes recorded? Less than 100 years Lecture #3 – damage from earthquakes 1. What is liquefaction of soil? A process that is put in place by earthquakes 2. Why do earthquakes cause avalanches and landslides and cause buildings to collapse?
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The intense shaking of the ground 3. What structural element do buildings need in order not to collapse?
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Study questions for Exam - Study questions for Exam#1...

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