L32 - Bases are ionic or molecular compounds that generate...

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Unformatted text preview: Bases are ionic or molecular compounds that generate OH- ions in aqueous solution. Acid-base reaction (a.k.a. neutralization reaction): reaction of an acid with a base. Key event: formation of H 2 O from H + and OH- . Acids are molecular compounds that dissociate in water to form an electrolyte solution containing anions and H + cations. Naming Acids 1) Binary acids solutions form when certain gaseous compounds dissolve in water. For example, when gaseous hydrogen chloride(HCl) dissolves in water, it forms a solution called hydrochloric acid. Prefix hydro- + anion nonmetal root + suffix -ic + the word acid - hydrochloric acid 2) Oxoacid names are similar to those of the oxoanions, except for two suffix changes: Anion -ate suffix becomes an -ic suffix in the acid. Anion -ite suffix becomes an -ous suffix in the acid. The oxoanion prefixes hypo- and per- are retained. Thus, BrO 4- is perbromate , and HBrO 4 is perbromic acid; IO 2- is i odite , and HIO 2 is iodous acid. Table 4.2 Selected Acids and Bases Acids Strong hydrochloric acid, HCl hydrobromic acid, HBr hydroiodic acid, HI nitric acid, HNO 3 sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4 perchloric acid, HClO 4 Weak hydrofluoric acid, HF phosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4 acetic acid, CH 3 COOH (or HC 2 H 3 O 2 ) Bases Strong Weak sodium hydroxide, NaOH calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2 potassium hydroxide, KOH strontium hydroxide, Sr(OH) 2 barium hydroxide, Ba(OH) 2 ammonia, NH 3 Acid-base (neutralization) reactions Strong acid reacting with a strong base: Molecular equation: HCl( aq ) + NaOH( aq ) -> H 2 O( l ) + NaCl( aq ) acid base water salt Notice this is a double displacement reaction. Acid-base (neutralization) reactions Strong acid reacting with a strong base: Molecular equation: H Cl ( aq ) + Na OH ( aq ) -> H 2 O ( l ) + NaCl ( aq ) acid base water salt H + ( aq ) + Cl- ( aq ) + Na + ( aq ) + OH- ( aq ) -> H 2 O( l ) + Na + ( aq ) + Cl- ( aq ) Total ionic equation: Notice this is a double displacement reaction. Acid-base (neutralization) reactions Strong acid reacting with a strong base: Molecular equation: HCl( aq ) + NaOH( aq ) -> H 2 O( l ) + NaCl( aq ) acid base water salt H + ( aq ) + OH- ( aq ) -> H 2 O( l ) H + ( aq ) + Cl- ( aq ) + Na + ( aq ) + OH- ( aq ) -> H 2 O( l ) + Na + ( aq ) + Cl- ( aq ) Remove spectator ions -> net ionic equation: Total ionic equation: Notice this is a double displacement reaction....
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L32 - Bases are ionic or molecular compounds that generate...

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