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PublicSpeakingFinalStudyGuide - Public Speaking Final Study...

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Public Speaking Final Study Guide Rhetorical Strategies -The three means of persuasion: 1. The qualifications and personality of the speaker 2. The nature of the audience’s feelings 3. The nature of the message in a speech - Logos: appeals to audience reasoning *Aristotle used the term logos to refer to persuasive appeals directed at the audience’s reasoning on a topic. Such appeals make considerable use of argument with support for or against an idea or issue. *Two forms of rational appeal= syllogism & enthymeme * Syllogism ; a three part argument consisting of a major premise , or general case; a minor premise , or specific case; and a conclusion . -Some are positive and constructive, leading to clearer understanding of an issue. -Others are inappropriate and poorly applied, leading to unfounded conclusions. i.e. Major premise- All men are mortal. Minor premise- Socrates is a man. Conclusion- Therefore Socrates is a mortal. * Enthymeme ; a syllogism presented as a probability rather than as an absolute, and it states either a major or a minor premise. i.e. From major premise to conclusion- Regular exercise enhances your ability to study productively, so swimming regularly should enhance your studying. * The key for both syllogisms and enthymemes is that your premises be acceptable according to sound reasoning or logic. -Pathos: appeals to audience emotion *According to Aristotle, pathos requires creating a certain disposition in the audience. He taught that successful public speakers should be able to identify and appeal to four sets of emotions in their listeners- 1. Anger & meekness 2. Love & hatred 3. Fear & boldness 4. Shame & shamelessness *Two means of invoking these emotions in a speech include the use of vivid description and emotionally charged words .
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*Emotion gets the audience’s attention and stimulates a desire to act on the emotion; reason is then presented as justification for the action. *Appealing to an audience’s emotions on the basis of sound reasoning ensures that your speech is ethical. -Ethos : appeals to speaker character Aristotle believed that speech making should emphasize the quality and impact of ideas, but he realized that the nature of the speaker’s character and personality also plays an important role in how well the audience accepts the message. * Which elements of a persuasive appeal are based on ethos? - Competence ; the speaker’s knowledge of and experience with the subject matter. - Moral character ; this is reflected in the speaker’s straightforward and honest presentation of the message. You should prepare and present every aspect of your speeches with the utmost integrity so that your audiences will regard you as trustworthy. - Goodwill : a strong ethos-based appeal demonstrates an interest in and a concern for the welfare of your audience.
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