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Poli 205 Mid Term2 - Poli 205 Mid Term#2 study notes...

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Poli 205 Mid Term #2 study notes Conditions for Co-operation o Nations dwell in perpetual anarchy since there is no central authority to impose limits on sovereignty and interests. o States much trust each other and cooperate in order to gain security. o For cooperation to exist actors must want mutual CC rather than mutual DD. o The Prisoners Dilemma, Stag Hunt, and Chicken games. o Prisoners Dilemma – o Two prisoners are suspected of a major crime If neither squeals they both get a light sentence. If one squeals and the other doesn’t the rat will go free – the sucker gets the heavy sentence. If both squeal they get a moderate sentence. o If you only play one round of the game each prisoner is better off squealing Rationally thinking – you want to rat so you can get away free. Each of them mutually defects. DD. o Co-operation CC would have given them a light sentence If they both didn’t squeal. o Rationality gets them a sub-optimal outcome. o Stag Hunt o Group of hunters finds a stag o If they all cooperate and catch it they will all eat well. o If one hunter sees a rabbit and he decides to pursue it the stag will get away. He will eat lightly, while the rest of the hunters will not eat at all. o In this case, defection is not the rational motivation because catching the stag will allow you to eat more. o Chicken o Two drivers race down a street on the same lane in opposite directions. o If one swerves, he is known as a chicken, while the other one is known as a hero. o If neither swerves they both suffer a great deal. In the end they both swerve because the pain is not worth it. They are equally called “chickens” o All of the outcomes of these games stated above are under single-play conditions. o In multiple play instances co-operation increases because you have to take into hand future rounds of the game.
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o Players are forced to look at the short and long term effects of their actions. o In multiple play prisoners dilemma the squealer looks at the pros and cons of defecting o In stag hunt – if a hunter goes after the rabbit in the first round no body will trust him again in the future. o In chicken – multiple rounds reduces co-operation. (Meaning less of a chance that both drivers will swerve like in the first round) One drivers defection in any round decreases the chances of the opposing driver swerving as he tries to coerce the other driver into being a chicken and swerving while he stays on track. o The more actors you have in a treaty – the harder it is to appease them all. o Each actor has different points of view on an agreement, Getting everybody to agree on the same set of rules is harder. o Governments turn to discriminatory tactics and try and weed out some members of the agreement.
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