frus1977-80v13 - FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES 19771980 VOLUME XIII CHINA DEPARTMENT OF STATE Washington Foreign Relations of the United States

frus1977-80v13 - FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES...

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Unformatted text preview: FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES 1977–1980 VOLUME XIII CHINA DEPARTMENT OF STATE Washington Foreign Relations of the United States, 1977–1980 Volume XIII China Editor David P. Nickles General Editor Adam M. Howard United States Government Printing Office Washington 2013 DEPARTMENT OF STATE Office of the Historian Bureau of Public Affairs For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800; DC area (202) 512-1800 Fax: (202) 512-2250 Mail: Stop IDCC, Washington, DC 20402-0001 339-370/428-S/80013 About the Series The Foreign Relations of the United States series presents the official documentary historical record of major foreign policy decisions and significant diplomatic activity of the U.S. Government. The Historian of the Department of State is charged with the responsibility for the preparation of the Foreign Relations series. The staff of the Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, under the direction of the General Editor of the Foreign Relations series, plans, researches, compiles, and edits the volumes in the series. Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg first promulgated official regulations codifying specific standards for the selection and editing of documents for the series on March 26, 1925. These regulations, with minor modifications, guided the series through 1991. Public Law 102–138, the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, established a new statutory charter for the preparation of the series which was signed by President George H.W. Bush on October 28, 1991. Section 198 of P.L. 102–138 added a new Title IV to the Department of State’s Basic Authorities Act of 1956 (22 U.S.C. 4351, et seq.). The statute requires that the Foreign Relations series be a thorough, accurate, and reliable record of major U.S. foreign policy decisions and significant U.S. diplomatic activity. The volumes of the series should include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation of major foreign policy decisions and actions of the U.S. Government. The statute also confirms the editing principles established by Secretary Kellogg: the Foreign Relations series is guided by the principles of historical objectivity and accuracy; records should not be altered or deletions made without indicating in the published text that a deletion has been made; the published record should omit no facts that were of major importance in reaching a decision; and nothing should be omitted for the purposes of concealing a defect in policy. The statute also requires that the Foreign Relations series be published not more than 30 years after the events recorded. The editors are convinced that this volume meets all regulatory, statutory, and scholarly standards of selection and editing. Sources for the Foreign Relations Series The Foreign Relations statute requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation of major U.S. foreign policy decisions and significant U.S. diplomatic activity. It further requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the U.S. Government enIII 339-370/428-S/80013 IV About the Series gaged in foreign policy formulation, execution, or support cooperate with the Department of State historians by providing full and complete access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. Most of the sources consulted in the preparation of this volume have been declassified and are available for review at the National Archives and Records Administration. The editors of the Foreign Relations series have complete access to all the retired records and papers of the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the special decentralized files (‘‘lot files’’) of the Department at the bureau, office, and division levels; the files of the Department’s Executive Secretariat, which contain the records of international conferences and high-level official visits, correspondence with foreign leaders by the President and Secretary of State, and the memoranda of conversations between the President and the Secretary of State and foreign officials; and the files of overseas diplomatic posts. All of the Department’s central files for 1977–1981 are available in electronic or microfilm formats at the National Archives and Records Administration facility in College Park, Maryland (Archives II), and may be accessed using the Access to Archival Databases (AAD) tool. Almost all of the Department’s decentralized office files covering this period, which the National Archives deems worthy of permanent retention, have been transferred to or are in the process of being transferred from the Department’s custody to Archives II. Research for Foreign Relations volumes is undertaken through special access to restricted documents at the Jimmy Carter Presidential Library and other agencies. While all the material printed in this volume has been declassified, some of it is extracted from still-classified documents. The staff of the Carter Library is processing and declassifying many of the documents used in this volume, but they may not be available in their entirety at the time of publication. Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Carter Library include some of the most significant foreign-affairs related documentation from White House offices, the Department of State, and other federal agencies including the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Some of the research for volumes in this subseries was done in Carter Library record collections scanned for the Remote Archive Capture (RAC) project. This project, which is administered by the National Archives and Records Administration’s Office of Presidential Libraries, was designed to coordinate the declassification of still-classified records held in various Presidential libraries. As a result of the way in which records were scanned for the RAC, the editors of the Foreign Relations series were not always able to determine whether attachments to a given document were in fact attached to the paper copy of the docu- 339-370/428-S/80013 About the Series V ment in the Carter Library file. In such cases, some editors of the Foreign Relations series have indicated this ambiguity by stating that the attachments were ‘‘Not found attached.’’ Editorial Methodology The documents in this volume are presented chronologically according to time in Washington, DC. Memoranda of conversation are placed according to the time and date of the conversation, rather than the date the memorandum was drafted. Editorial treatment of the documents published in the Foreign Relations series follows Office style guidelines, supplemented by guidance from the General Editor and the Chief of the Declassification and Publishing Division. The original document is reproduced as exactly as possible, including marginalia or other notations, which are described in the footnotes. Texts are transcribed and printed according to accepted conventions for the publication of historical documents within the limitations of modern typography. A heading has been supplied by the editors for each document included in the volume. Spelling, capitalization, and punctuation are retained as found in the original text, except that obvious typographical errors are silently corrected. Other mistakes and omissions in the documents are corrected by bracketed insertions: a correction is set in italic type; an addition in roman type. Words or phrases underlined in the original document are printed in italics. Abbreviations and contractions are preserved as found in the original text, and a list of abbreviations and terms is included in the front matter of each volume. In telegrams, the telegram number (including special designators such as Secto) is printed at the start of the text of the telegram. Bracketed insertions are also used to indicate omitted text that deals with an unrelated subject (in roman type) or that remains classified after declassification review (in italic type). The amount and, where possible, the nature of the material not declassified has been noted by indicating the number of lines or pages of text that were omitted. Entire documents withheld after declassification review have been accounted for and are listed in their chronological place with headings, source notes, and the number of pages not declassified. All brackets that appear in the original document are so identified in the footnotes. All ellipses are in the original documents. The first footnote to each document indicates the sources of the document and its original classification, distribution, and drafting information. This note also provides the background of important documents and policies and indicates whether the President or his major policy advisers read the document. 339-370/428-S/80013 VI About the Series Editorial notes and additional annotation summarize pertinent material not printed in the volume, indicate the location of additional documentary sources, provide references to important related documents printed in other volumes, describe key events, and provide summaries of and citations to public statements that supplement and elucidate the printed documents. Information derived from memoirs and other first-hand accounts has been used when appropriate to supplement or explicate the official record. The numbers in the index refer to document numbers rather than to page numbers. Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation The Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation, established under the Foreign Relations statute, monitors the overall compilation and editorial process of the series and advises on all aspects of the preparation of the series and declassification of records. The Advisory Committee does not necessarily review the contents of individual volumes in the series, but it makes recommendations on issues that come to its attention and reviews volumes as it deems necessary to fulfill its advisory and statutory obligations. Declassification Review The Office of Information Programs and Services, Bureau of Administration, conducted the declassification review for the Department of State of the documents published in this volume. The review was conducted in accordance with the standards set forth in Executive Order 13526 on Classified National Security Information and applicable laws. The principle guiding declassification review is to release all information, subject only to the current requirements of national security as embodied in law and regulation. Declassification decisions entailed concurrence of the appropriate geographic and functional bureaus in the Department of State, other concerned agencies of the U.S. Government, and the appropriate foreign governments regarding specific documents of those governments. The declassification review of this volume, which began in 2010 and was completed in 2012, resulted in the decision to withhold 0 documents in full, excise a paragraph or more in 14 documents, and make excisions of less than a paragraph in 35 documents. The Office of the Historian is confident, on the basis of the research conducted in preparing this volume and as a result of the declassification review process described above, that the documentation and editorial notes presented here provide a thorough, accurate, and reliable— 339-370/428-S/80013 About the Series VII given the limitations of space—record of the Carter administration’s policy toward China. Stephen P. Randolph, Ph.D. The Historian Adam M. Howard, Ph.D. General Editor Bureau of Public Affairs April 2013 339-370/428-S/80013 Preface Structure and Scope of the Foreign Relations Series This volume, part of a subseries of the Foreign Relations series that documents the most important issues in the foreign policy of the administration of Jimmy Carter, covers U.S. policy toward China from 1977 to 1980. Readers interested in U.S. security policy should also consult Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, volume IV, National Security Policy. For more on U.S. relations with a specific country or region, readers should consult the relevant geographically-focused volumes in the Foreign Relations Carter subseries. Additional documentation on foreign aid and human rights may be found in Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, volume II, Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs. U.S. international economic policy is covered in Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, volume III, Foreign Economic Policy. Finally, for the organization of the foreign policy making process, readers should consult Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, volume XXVIII, Organization and Management of Foreign Policy. Focus of Research and Principles of Selection for Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, Volume XIII The Carter administration’s foreign policy toward China was characterized by significant achievements as well as by bureaucratic infighting. December 15, 1978 marked the most dramatic achievement when, following secret negotiations, the United States and the People’s Republic of China announced that they were establishing formal diplomatic relations. As the political relationship between China and the United States improved, economic and cultural ties became more robust. Although a shared animosity toward the Soviet Union provided much of the impetus for greater cooperation between the United States and China, leaders in Washington and Beijing increasingly felt that expanded interactions, if well-managed, could produce tremendous benefits for both countries. However, the closer relationship between Washington and Beijing came at a cost: the severance of both official relations and the U.S. defense treaty with the Republic of China (Taiwan), a government with which the United States had close political, military, and commercial ties. American officials showed continuing concern for Taiwan partly because of its ideological, strategic, and economic importance in the Cold War, partly to maintain the credibility of U.S. international commitments, and, at least among some, because they felt IX 339-370/428-S/80013 X Preface that the United States had a responsibility to ensure that it did not destroy the opportunity of the people on Taiwan to seek a peaceful future. When Carter took office in January 1977, a significant improvement in relations between China and the United States was far from inevitable. In the aftermath of Nixon and Kissinger’s frustrated attempt to seek normalization during Nixon’s abbreviated second administration, the currents of American politics appeared less favorable to such a policy. Among Republicans, the increasingly powerful conservative wing, led by such figures as Ronald Reagan and Barry Goldwater, rejected the notion that the United States should abandon the alliance with Taiwan for the sake of improved relations with a Communist country. Within the Carter administration, the President and Cyrus Vance wondered whether Nixon and Kissinger had made too many concessions in their effort to improve relations with China. Initially, Carter was distrustful of China, and believed that his predecessors had abased themselves during their negotiations with that country. Vance opposed any policy that improved relations with China at the expense of US-Soviet de´tente, which he saw as the best hope for a more stable and peaceful world. Furthermore, Richard Holbrooke, the Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, sought to establish official diplomatic relations between the United States and Vietnam, a policy that had broader foreign policy implications due to the growing animosity between Vietnam and China. In contrast, Zbigniew Brzezinski and his aide Michel Oksenberg, the leading China specialist on the NSC staff, pushed for Sino-American normalization. They argued that American hesitation might squander a historic opportunity to establish better relations between two of the world’s leading countries, whose enmity had threatened the stability of the international system just a few years earlier. Furthermore, Brzezinski was skeptical about the solidity of de´tente, and believed that a partnership with China would make the Soviets feel less secure and thereby improve their behavior. At the Pentagon, Harold Brown’s desire to prevent a renewed Sino-Soviet alliance led him to join Brzezinski in support of normalization. The Joint Chiefs of Staff, concerned about the security of Taiwan and the credibility of American commitments, were more skeptical of Sino-American normalization than was the civilian leadership at DoD. Although some parts of the U.S. Government sought to address human rights in the Sino-American dialogue, this issue was generally subordinated to the effort to improve relations between the United States and China. Despite their disagreements, members of the Carter administration decided that the United States should adhere to the Shanghai Communique´, in which the United States had declared that it did not challenge the notion that there was but one China, but also expressed an 339-370/428-S/80013 Preface XI interest in the peaceful resolution of the Taiwan question by the Chinese themselves. During the preparations for Vance’s August 1977 visit to China, Carter chose three guidelines to govern the U.S. negotiating position throughout the normalization talks: first, improvement of Sino-American relations should be reciprocal; second, the United States would not approach China as a supplicant; third, the United States would seek to maintain the confidence of the people on Taiwan that their future would be prosperous and tranquil. Along these lines, the United States informed Taiwan’s government that although it was beginning a process that might lead to normalization of relations with the People’s Republic of China, it would not agree to terms that would undermine Taiwan’s security and well-being. During late 1977 and early 1978, other concerns, especially the domestic political effort necessary to ratify the Panama Canal Treaties, delayed the push for normalization with China. Meanwhile, U.S. officials sought increased Sino-American economic, technological, and cultural exchanges. They also examined means of reducing U.S. defense links with Taiwan and increasing those with China. By the time of Brzezinski’s May 1978 visit to Beijing, Carter had decided to seek normalized relations with China during his first term. The President believed that for domestic political reasons, normalization would be difficult until after the 1978 midterm elections, yet needed to be accomplished before late 1979 due to the 1980 presidential election. This left a window of about one year to realize one of Carter’s major foreign policy goals. Brzezinski’s visit went well. Chinese officials seemed pleased by his attitude toward the Soviet Union, and his expression of the Carter administration’s interest in moving toward normalization. American officials were particularly impressed by China’s tacit acceptance of continued U.S. arms sales to Taiwan after normalization. Following Brzezinski’s visit, Carter agreed to Vance’s proposal of a mid-December 1978 target date for a public announcement that the United States would recognize the People’s Republic of China. He also affirmed Vance’s proposition that normalization should precede the SALT ratification debate in the 1979 legislative calendar. This cleared the way for Leonard Woodcock—communicating with Washington via the ‘‘Voyager’’ backchannel, which circumvented all but a few senior officials— to begin confidential negotiations in Beijing on normalizing relations. The negotiations reached fruition on December 15, 1978. As expected, the normalization announcement resulted in public outrage in Taiwan and from R.O.C. supp...
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