Theology Exam 2 Study Guide
Catherine of Sienna- (c. A.D. 1347-1380) a mystic of the late medieval period, she was a Dominican
tertiary and influential in binging and end to the Avignon Papacy, only to see it fall into the situation of
the Great Schism. Catherine’s prayer life had led her into a vision of mystical marriage to Christ. Her
visions often were of the nourishing and cleansing blood of the sacrifice of Christ on the cross. (p. 240)
Council of Nicaea- an ecumenical council held in A.D. 325, which maintained the true divinity of the
Son, Jesus Christ, against the teaching of Arius. (p109, 127, 156, 157, 162)
Shiites- meaning “partisans of Ali,” Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law. This Muslim group arose soon
after the death of Muhammad, as a consequence of a dispute over how the position of caliph (Muslim
ruler) ought to be filled. Today, it continues to be a minority group within the Islamic faith.
Ecumenical- meaning “worldwide”; 1) in Gnosticism, a way of looking at reality as divided between two
hostile divine powers, one representing good and the other evil’ 2) a way of looking at reality in terms of
polar opposites (belief/unbelief; darkness/light; truth/falsehood).
Waldensians-names for their founder Valdes, these twelfth-century A.D. “Poor Men of Lyons” sought to
return to the apostolic life of the early church. Their hostility to the clergy (because of clerical abuses)
eventually led to their condemnation by the Council of Verona in 1184.
Vulgate- a Latin translation of the Bible, containing also the books of the apocrypha, widely used in the
West at least from the sixth century A.D. and declared by the Council of Trent to be the only authoritative
translation of the Bible.
Athanasius (d. A.D. 373) - bishop of Alexandria and staunch opponent of Arianism. He said that no
subordinate God was necessary to protect true divinity from contact with the world. Only the one true
God could save us; anything less put our salvation in doubt. Also, that the flesh of Christ was an
instrument to reveal Himself to humans and renew our nature.
Avignon Papacy- referring to a period in the Late Middle Ages when the pope moved his court to
Avignon, France. Before the papacy returned to Rome, the church leadership would be involved in an
even greater struggle for power called the Great Schism.(p232)
Caliph- one of the successors of Muhammad chosen to govern the Islamic people after his death; one who
rules a Muslim nation
Mysticism- A spiritual phenomenon that expresses itself in direct, intense experiences of union and
oneness with God. Generally, the mystical journey consists of three phases: purgation (cleansing from
sin), illumination (an attraction to all the things of God), and union (the state of oneness with God).
Simony- it is the buying and selling of spiritual things, including church leadership positions.