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Second Exam Study Guide

Second Exam Study Guide - Second Exam Study Guide Platos...

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Second Exam Study Guide Plato’s Republic Book I 1.) What is justice; and, more specifically, what is a just polis? 2.) -Cephalus says that justice is a matter of telling the truth and paying one's debts. ---- -Counter ex: Socrates questions this definition by asking whether it would be just to return a weapon to a friend who has become mad and has asked for it back. (returning borrowed weapons to a lunatic). The definition is shown thereby to be inadequate and the search for the universal nature ( eidos) of justice continues. (331c-e) 3.) -Polemarchus, the son of Cephalus, agrees with Simonides, who says that justice is giving to all persons their 'due': giving friends goods. -This definition is qualified by adding that giving persons their due amounts to helping your friends and harming your enemies. - Counter ex: craft person vs. just person. Just person is only good for storing goods: when goods are stored, they are useless . Socrates makes Polemarchus conclude that justice is useless when goods are useful and useful when goods are useless which basically doesn’t make sense. -generosity confused with justice: how gift to friends obtained -how do we know who our friend are/ false friends? 4.) -Socrates asks whether a just person would willingly harm anyone. -Polemarchus, a warrior, is understandably confused because what else does a soldier do other than wound and kill enemies? Socrates asks does a racehorse have a nature? And does that Nature have a telos (goal of life)? - Now Socrates asks if harming the horse will help or hinder its fulfillment of its nature. Clearly injuring the horse will make it worse. Does the just person try to make a person just or unjust? -Clearly justice seeks to produce justice. But injuring a person makes them unjust, so the just person never deliberately injures anyone, friend or enemy. - Thrasymachus, the sophist, argues with Socrates that justice is ‘the advantage of the strongest.’ (338c) - meaning: from place to place different political regimes rule: tyranny, aristocracy, democracy, for example. Whomever is in power (the strongest ) makes the laws and invariably they make the laws to their own financial and political advantage. Thus just rulers rule to the benefit of the strongest, namely themselves. -they "enact laws that are in their own interest. .." (338d-e) -Socrates: If they make a mistake then it will not be just for the people to obey those laws, if the rulers make a mistake about what will benefit them. - Socrates counters that Statecraft or rule is like any other craft and the practitioners of any craft conduct that craft in the interest of and to the benefit of the weakest, namely their clients or customers.
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Ex: Physician and patient: Between the physician and the patient, the physician is the stronger, since she has expertise and is not sick and the patient is the weaker, since both ignorant and sick. But the telos of the physician is to dispense medicine and the good of the art is the cure. The benefit, however, goes to the weaker since the
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Second Exam Study Guide - Second Exam Study Guide Platos...

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