Week 4 - Week 4: The Rise of Fascism in Inter-War Europe...

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Week 4: The Rise of Fascism in Inter-War Europe "Revolution of the Right" - Defining Fascism o Rise Fascism State of the World Liberal political ideals Universal Suffrage Fall of about 4 empires (German, Austral-Hungarian, Ottoman,  Russian) New Democratic Republics (like Germany) Events that happened Dissolution of Parliaments Authoritarian dictatorships (normally by one man) Anti-liberal/communist sentiments Fervent Nationalism o Marxist Definition: "The open terroristic dictatorship of the most reactionary, most  chauvinist and most imperial elements of finance capital" (G. Dimitrov, 1935) Nowadays, the term 'fascist' is used to insult someone who is  overzealous in their views Marxists: the most extreme right-wing  manifestation of capitalism (Crude  and inaccurate) No theoretical writings or basis - therefore hard to define o Origins of the term 'fascism'; the difficulties in defining a generic 'fascist model' The term 'Fascist' came from the Latin word, Fasces, for a bundle of  sticks surrounding an axe  - symbol of imperial power Italian fascist party PNF was created in 1919 by Mussolini Fascism is described as a revolution from the right by Findley-Rothney. o A 'revolution from the right': mass political mobilization to achieve largely  conservative ends Three ingredients to have this revolution Aggressive (often racist) Nationalism evident in all fascist regimes caused by WWI and the unfair peace of the Treaty of  Versailles The ability to work with the conservative (traditional) right Would have been impossible without the ability to co-opt  the conservative right (landowners, the army, the church and centre- right political parties) Hatred of liberalism and parliamentary government
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Anti-Semitism And fear of communism Mass Mobilization (Propaganda) The use of modern techniques of mass mobilization Radio, cinema, mass political rallies Borrowed some techniques from the revolutionary left Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: comparative analysis o Similarities in rising power of Hitler and Mussolini Grievances and disillusionment at the Peace of 1919 (Treaty of  Versailles) Treaty of Versailles Germany War Guilt clause Military reduction Territory confiscation Italy Described as the Mutilated peace
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Week 4 - Week 4: The Rise of Fascism in Inter-War Europe...

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