Prelim 2 Review - Psychopharmacology Chapter 1 Chapter...

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Psychopharmacology Chapter 1 Chapter discusses physiological factors that determine how much of the drug we ingest gets into the blood, how quickly that happens, and how long the drug remains active AND the drug-receptor dynamics and how the drug interacts with proteins in nerve cell membranes Pharmacology: The Science of Drug action Some Definitions: o Pharmacology is the study of the actions of drugs and their effects on a living organism. o Neuropharmacology is concerned with drug induced changes in cells in the nervous system o Psychopharmacology is concerned with drug induced changes in mood o Neuropsychopharmacology is to identify chemical substances that act on the nervous system to alter behavior o Drug Action is the specific molecular changes produced by a drug when it binds to a particular receptor. These changes then lead to more widespread alterations in physiological and psychological functions ( drug effects) . The site of drug action may be different from the site of drug effects. o Drugs have multiple effects: therapeutic effects (desired physical or behavioral changes) and side effects (all other effects) o There are specific and non specific drug effects Specific: those based on the interactions of a drug with the target site Nonspecific: based on certain characteristics of the individual. This helps to explain why an individual self-administering the same amount of a drug can feel different on different occasions. An example of non specific effects is that of the placebo – it is essential to the design of experiments evaluating the effectiveness of new medications bc it eliminates the influence of expectation on the part of the patient. Pharmacokinetic Factors Determining Drug Action o Chemical structure of a drug determines its action but also additional factors are powerful contributors o What is important is the amount of drug in the blood that is free to bind at specific target sites to elicit drug action (bioavailability) o The factors that contribute to a drugs bioavailability constitute the pharmacokinetic component of drug action Routes of administration : how and where a drug is administered determines how quickly and how completely the drug is absorbed in the blood Absorption and Distribution : Drug must pass through a variety of cell membranes to enter the blood plasma Binding : Once in the blood plasma the drug molecules move to tissues to bind to receptors (or sometimes fat or bone where the drug is inactive) Inactivation : occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the liver. The amount of drug in the body at one time is dependent on the balance
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between absorption and inactivation. Thus it influences both the intensity and the duration of drug effects Excretion: the liver metabolites are eliminated from the body o These factors all work together simultaneously. The drug effect experience is also affected by how rapidly the drug reaches the target, the history of drug
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course PSYCH 3250 taught by Professor Segal, h during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Prelim 2 Review - Psychopharmacology Chapter 1 Chapter...

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