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JOINTS AND ARTICULATIONS Joint/Articulation definition – bones meeting/connecting ANATOMICAL TERMS Sagittal – left and right Frontal – front and back Transverse – top and bottom Dorsal – side of vertebrae Ventral – side of heart Coronal – Cross-section Anterior – In front Posterior – In Back Superior – above Inferior – below Medial – close to midline Lateral – away from midline Proximal – Close to Distal – far away from Superficial – closer to surface Deep – below surface JOINT CLASSIFICATION FIBROUS JOINTS Joined by fibrous CT No cavity Mostly SYNARTHROTIC (immoveable) o Types: Sutures – short CT. As an adult CT in sutures are ossified. Syndesmosis – Long. Bends but doesn’t move. EX - Ligament joining posterior end of Fibula and tibia Gomphosis – Peg in socket. Only one, EX - Periodontal Ligament (teeth + jaw bone) CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS Joined by cartilage No cavity Synarthrotic or amphiarthrotic (immoveable or slightly moveable o Types Synchondrosis – united by hyaline cartilage. EX - Epiphyseal plate of long bones and between only first rib and sternum Symphysis – hyaline cartilage fused to fibrocartilage. EX – vertebral column SYNOVIAL JOINTS Fluid Containing joint cavity All diarthrotic (freely moveable) o Anatomy
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Structures (Fig. 9.4) o Bursa – purse filled with synovial fluid Prevents ligaments, tendons, cartilage form rubbing up again something else o Tendon Sheath – bursa that wraps tendons Synovial Movement o Gliding – slide over. EX – Sternum and Ribs, bones in wrist, o Flexion – decreasing joint angle o Extension - increasing joint angle o Abduction – away form midline o Adduction – towards midline o Circumduction – a cone in space. EX – shoulder move ment o Dorsi – lifting the foot. Towards knee o Plantar – lowering foot. Towards ground o Medial Rotation – turn along long axis towards mid line. EX – Rotating forearm so that
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