Test 3 - Large Intestine is rich in bacteria Mostly good...

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Large Intestine is rich in bacteria Mostly good When you take anti-biotics from doctor, the side effects include nausea, diarrhea, etc…. bc those anti-biotics kill off bacteria in Large Intestine LACTOSE INTOLERANT Lactose = milk sugar As we age we lose ability to produce lactase (enzyme that can digest lactose) Individual cannot digest lactose and becomes lactose intolerant Why it makes you sick? o Lactose is a good for the fermenting of bacteria, bacteria grows and produces methane o Lactose would normally get digested, but because it doesn’t the bacteria in the Large Intestine ferments it and creates methane gas o Methane created by bacteria makes you sick GASTROINTESTINAL MOVEMENT Peristalsis (Fig. 22.3a) Involves contraction of both circular and longitudinal muscle Propels food forward Found in lower esophagus, stomach, SI, and LI o Especially powerful in LI – called MASS MOVEMENT Segmentation (Fig. 22.3b) Alternates contracting and relaxing in different areas Only involves contraction of circular muscle Mixes food and facilitates absorption by creating enough contact with wall and food Purpose is not to transfer food from one area to another, just to mix and absorb Primarily found in SI Pendular Movement Involves just the contraction of longitudinal muscle Shortens and lengthens GI Tract Not used for transportation Responsible for massaging GI Tract to mix food and facilitate absorption Primarily found in SI ACCESSORY ORGANS LIVER Essential to life Very highly regenerative GROSS ANATOMY Lobes o Right Lobe – largest anterior o Left Lobe – smallest anterior o Quadrate Lobe – posterior inferior o Caudate Lobe – Posterior superior Ligaments o Falciform Ligament – Mesentery. Fusion of Visceral and Parietal peritoneum. Runs between left and right lobe o Ligamentum Teres – free inferior edge of falciform ligament
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Neither mesentery nor true ligament Remnant of fetal umbilical vein MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY (Fig. 22.22) Liver Lobules – Functional unit of liver o Liver is made up of many Lobules put together o If magnified it is hexagonal Hepatic Plates – Thin sheets of hepatocytes o Epithelial in origin Central Vein – Vein in middle surrounded by hepatic Plates o Recieves blood from portal triad o Blood flows out of heart to vena cava Portal Triad – Cluster of 3 tubes at each edge of hexagon o Hepatic Artery (Portal Anteriole) – Red Tube, Recieves arterial blood and delivers O2 and nutrients to liver lobule o Hepatic Portal Vein (Portal Venule) – Carries venous blood from digestive system. o Bile Duct – Receive bile produced by hepatocytes Liver Sinusoid – Leaky Capillaries (Capillaries that contain lots of large holes) . Kupffer Cells – Found inside Sinusoids. Immune Cells that remove debris and undesireable things
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Test 3 - Large Intestine is rich in bacteria Mostly good...

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