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Chapter 2 Biology and Behavior

Chapter 2 Biology and Behavior - Chapter 2 Biology and...

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Chapter 2 Biology and Behavior Overview: neurons, the nervous system, the brain Neurons : basic unit of the nervous system, specialized cells that receive, conduct, and transmit electrochemical messages throughout the nervous system. Electrical: action potential (impulse) Chemical: neurotransmitters Structure of the Neuron (3 Parts) 1) Cell Body- Soma : a) maintains cell life b) nucleus mitochondria, organelles etc.. 2) Dendrites : a) branch like fibers that receive information from other neurons b) arborization: dendrite growth c) inhibited arborization: inadequate stimulation (fetal alcahol syn) 3) Axon a) single fiber that sends info to other neurons b) length ranges from a fraction of a millimeter up to 3 ft. Neurons (2 Types ): excitatory and inhibitory Nerve or Neuron : neuron: single cell nerve: bundle of neuron axons How Neurons Fire (electro): a) resting potential b) action potential c) refractory period How Neurons Send Messages (Chemical): a) synapse : 1) neurons do not touch 2) small gap between the axon of one neuron and dendrite of another. b) Synaptic Knob : 1) end of the axon contains synaptic vesicles. Gaps filled with neurotransmitters Synapse: Structures at synapse . A) axon terminal b) synaptic vesicles c) neurotransmitters d) synaptic cleft e) receptor sites Conduction Speed : Myelin Sheath : insulation around the axon, changes w/ age. Nodes of Raniver : Gaps in the Myelin Sheath, impulse ‘jumps ” the node. Temperature : at what body temperature do neurons fire fastest.
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