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1HypertensionStudent's NameInstitution affiliationCourse NameInstructor's NameDue Date
2IntroductionHypertension is a chronic disorder of the cardiovascular system associated with a high riskfor morbidity and mortality.According to the American Heart Association, hypertension is adiastolic pressure of 90mmHg and a diastolic pressure of more than 130 mmHg (Siddiqui etal.,2019). Hypertension is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world( Mills etal.,2020). The term hypertension is interchanged with the term high blood pressure.Hypertension is a major cause of alarm in the medical field because it complicates otherconditions, such as diabetes, HIV/ AIDS, and infections such as Coronavirus. Hypertension is aprimary cause of concern because it causes congestive heart failure, stroke, renal failure,cognitive disorders, and ultimately death. This paper aims to review the causes,pathophysiology, complications, and management of hypertension.1ResultsAccording to a study conducted by Siddiqui and others (2019 ), poor dietary habits and livinga passive lifestyle account for about 30 % of preventable causes of cardiovascular diseases;hence feeding on balanced diet low in sodium will decrease the risk of hypertension. A study ona multi-ethnic population feeding tuber and meat shows a lower risk of hypertension in thepopulation because of their good dietary intake (Yuan &Yongshou, 2018). Intake of foods rich insodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium is associated with an increased lifetime risk ofhypertension of 43% (Yuan & Yongshou2018).In a study by Bel, alcohol intake is associated with hypertension. There is a high prevalenceof alcohol consumption in males as compared to females. A meta-analysis on the amount ofalcohol consumption and the subsequent risk of hypertension indicates that increased alcoholconsumption increases the risk of acquiring hypertension (Bel 2018). Reducing the rate is a vital1 Mills, K. T., Stefanescu, A., & He, J. (2020). The global epidemiology of hypertension.Nature ReviewsNephrology,16(4), 223-237.
3component in hypertensive therapy because reducing alcohol intake will reduce the risk ofcomplications to chronic hypertension.A study conducted by Meheldi and others shows a higher risk of cardiovascular disease inundeveloped countries due to a lack of education and information on the condition. The study isconducted on adults in Nepal to determine how age, sex, working status, body mass index,alcohol intake, and education status relate to hypertension. This study showed that 58.1 % of allhypertensives are women and that the prevalence of hypertension increases with age. Anothersimilar research to determine the prevalence of hypertension in women and older age groupsshows the prevalence of hypertension in urban areas due to poor dietary habits and increasedsusceptibility to hypertension in older patients. (Wang et al., 2020)Understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension is vital to medical practitioners in themanagement and diagnosis of the condition. A study was done to investigate thepathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases attributes hypertension to increased cardiac outputand peripheral resistance (Saxena et al., 2018). A study done on elderly patients withhypertension by Brown and others shows a decreased elasticity of the tunica media, whichincreases systolic pressure. A very high increase in systolic pressure results in an increased rate

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