Chapter5 - Chapter 5 Atmospheric Water and Weather Water on...

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Chapter 5 Atmospheric Water and Weather Water on Earth Water, water, everywhere… Water is most common substance on face of the Earth Occupies 71% of the area of our planet Weighs 8.337 lb./gal Constitutes almost 70% of our bodies (by weight) Moisture of the world found in 7 types of storage: Oceans – occupy 71% of Earth’s surface but contain 97.2% of all water Glaciers – contain 2% of all moisture, but ¾ of world’s fresh water Underground water – 0.5% of world total Surface waters (rivers, lakes, inland seas) – less than 0.2% of all water Soil moisture – 0.1% of total Atmospheric moisture – tiny fraction (0.0001%) Biological water (stored in plant and animal tissue) -- negligible Ocean and Freshwater Distribution Water Temperate location of Earth in solar system allows water to exist in three physical states – liquid, gas, solid Water is a compound – 2 atoms of hydrogen, 1 atom of oxygen Æ strong bond Hydrogen side = positive charge Oxygen side = negative charge Water molecules bond ( hydrogen bonding ) – positive side of one molecule attracted to negative side of another Hydrogen bonding responsible for surface tension and capillary action Heat Properties Change from one physical state to another requires addition or loss of heat energy Amount of heat must be sufficient to affect hydrogen bonds between molecules Relationship between water and heat energy is important driving force in weather Heat exchange involved in phase changes of water provides over 30% of energy that powers the general circulation of the atmosphere Water’s Phase Changes Liquid (water) to gas (water vapor) = evaporation, vaporization (boiling water) Gas to liquid = condensation Liquid to solid (ice) = freezing Solid to liquid = melting
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Gas to solid (and vice versa) = sublimation Three States of Water Solid Phase (Ice) As water cools, it contracts in volume until it reaches a certain temperature (39 o F) Below that temperature, water begins to expand as hydrogen bonds form among slower-moving molecules Æ hexagonal structure Expansion in volume results in decrease in density – ice 0.91 times the density of water so it floats Iceberg: 1/11 (9%) on surface, 10/11 (91%) hidden beneath ocean’s surface Expansion in volume responsible for broken pipes, roadway cracks in winter Liquid Phase (Water) Non-compressible fluid – assumes shape of container Heat energy increases motion of water molecules in ice, breaks some of hydrogen bonds, melting occurs 80 calories of heat required for 1 gram of ice to melt to 1 gram of water Latent heat: stored within water and liberated when water freezes Æ latent heat of melting and freezing Gas Phase (Water Vapor) Invisible, compressible gas 540 calories are required to convert 1 gram of boiling water to vapor Æ latent heat of vaporization Evaporation requires more energy than if water were boiling: 585 calories per gram Æ latent heat of evaporation
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