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Genetics - Hows your grade Have you calculated your grade...

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How’s your grade? How’s your grade? Have you calculated your grade lately? If not, use the spreadsheet Are all your assignment listed in PAL? You need to let me know if they are not
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Warning: Word Problems Warning: Word Problems If you don’t understand them, get help!!!
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Discover Biology FIFTH EDITION Discover Biology FIFTH EDITION CHAPTER 12 Genetics © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
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Gregor Mendel: “Father of Genetics” 1866: a paper on peas ignored for 30 years Everything rediscovered Hugo de Vries Carl Correns
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Gregor Mendel: He Studied Peas Bred peas, tracked 7 traits Looked for mathematical patterns in offspring Before Mendel: “kids are blend of parents traits” For most traits: FALSE
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Nerd Words for in Genetics genetic trait: anything you can see/detect Invariant – everybody the same variable – in your phenotype “Express” a gene – have, and show not just in genotype also in phenotype
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Mendel: found Inherited Traits Kids get two sets of info one from each parent Most traits don’t blend No idea what information was or how it was stored
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After Mendel: “genetics” 1950’s: Watson & Crick find structure of DNA Info stored in DNA Now: epigenetics – info on what DNA to read Which genes are turned on!!!
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Di ploid Cells: 2 Copies of all Genes Normal (somatic) cells: diploid (2n) 46 chromosomes 23 paternal, 23 maternal homologue 2 copies of each chromosome made by mitosis reproductive (Gamete) cells: Haploid (1n) 23 chromosomes One set of chromosomes some from each parent in humans, made by Meiosis Ha ploid Cells: Half the normal DNA
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Nerd Words for in Genetics Gene: an instruction written in DNA Usually instructions for a protein many genes on each chromosome Gen o type : The type of Genes you have Phe notype: The traits you display hair color, freckles, blood type, eyesight (many are things you can feel )
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Nerd Words for in Genetics Alleles: versions of a gene hair color gene blonde allele redhead allele brunette allele black hair allele Genetic Diversity: having more than one version (allele) of a gene in a population More alleles = more genetic diversity
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Genotype Nerd Words Phenotype: the genes you express Genotype: the genes you have Homo zygous: all the same alleles (versions) of a gene Homo ” = same kind Hetero zygous: more than one allele (version) of a gene Hetero ” = not the same kind
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Genotype Nerd Words Hybrid: has heterozygous genotype (Ss) Dihybrid: is heterozygous for two traits (SsTt)
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