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Depression - (major depression and bipolar Chemical...

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Depression Physical: change in appetite, persistent fatigue, low energy, sleep disturbances, immune system impairment Mood Disorders: Major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder (formerly manic depressive disorder) Cognitive: feelings of guilt and worthlessness, difficulty concentrating, self criticism, difficulty making decisions, suicidal thoughts and/ or suicide attempts. Major Depressive Disorder: not just a bad mood, persists, interferes with daily life, work, interactions with other people. May cycle w/ normal moods, 7- 12% of US adults, equal among ethnic, socioeconomic groups. 2 times as likely female Bipolar Disorder: cycles between depression and mania, equal number of males and females Manic Symptoms: elevated mood, unlimited energy, high activity level, little or no sleep, risk taking, hypersexuality (indiscriminate) Grandiose plans, inflated self esteem, wild optimism. Depression Theories: Biological theories- genetic influences: twin studies- monozygotic twins more similar
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Unformatted text preview: (major depression and bipolar) Chemical influences: low serotonin, low dopamine, IN Bipolar : norepinepherine high in mania phase low in depression phase Learned Helplessness- Seligmans 1974 experiment w/ dogs, theory applied to people- some people learn that rewards are not linked to actions, stop trying, depression is acquired. Beck’s Cognitive Theory: negative view of self, world and future Negative schemata, acquired during childhood. Distortions in thinking (cognitive bias) Overgeneralization, selective abstraction, attributions toward bad events are: stable, internal, and global Cognitive Therapy: Theory: depression caused by errors in thinking Role of Therapist: try to change patients thinking about self, alter maladaptive thoughts. Depression Realism: depressed people are more accurate and realistic in their pperception and judgements. Wiser but sadder affect Lack self serving bias....
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