2-The-Anatomy-and-Physiology-of-the-Nervous-System-Parkinsons-Disease-CPP-ICP.pdf

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1The Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous SystemComposition of Brain and Spinal Cord80% brain mass, 10% blood, and 10% cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)A.Cerebrumthe largest part of the braina.Partsi.2right and left hemisphereii.Corpus callosumlargest commissural tract;bridge that connects the right and left hemisphere.b.Functionsi.Sensoryii.Motoriii.Integrativec.Basal Ganglia (2)i.Produce neurotransmitter calleddopamineii.Areas of grey matter located deep within each cerebral hemisphere.d.Lobesi.Frontal Lobe(largest)it controls:1.Personality development2.Judgement/logic/rationality3.Primitive reflexes are inhibitedLike sucking reflex because at you grow older, the frontal lobe will tell you to stopsucking reflex.4.Motor activity5.Site ofBroca’s areaormotor speech centerdamage could lead to(+) EXPRESSIVEAPHASIAinability to speaka.Signs and symptoms:(+) noddingb.Nursing Care:Use of picture boardii.Temporal Lobeit controls:1.Hearing2.Short-term memory3.Site ofWernicke’s arealanguage centerdamage could lead to(+) RECEPTIVEAPHASIAinability to understand spoken words.a.Signs and symptoms:(+) illogical/irrational thoughtsb.Nursing Care:Use of pantomime/ repeat the instructionsNeurotransmitter:1.Dopaminea.Controls gross voluntary movementb.Relaxes musclec.Responsible for muscle coordinationd.Regulates mood, pleasure, reward, and memorye.Inhibitory and excitatory2.Acetylcholinea.ExcitatoryParkinson’sDiseaseMyastheniaGravisSchizophreniaBipolar DisorderLow AcetylcholineLow DopamineHigh DopamineHigh Acetylcholine
2iii.Occipital Lobeit controls:1.Visioniv.Parietal Lobe1.Responsible for appreciation & discrimination of sensory impulses like pain, touch, pressure,heat & cold.v.Central Lobe/Insula/Island of Reilit controls:1.Visceral:GITmotility,contractionandrelaxationoftheheartmuscle,bronchoconstriction/dilations.Visceralinternal organsvi.Rhinencephalon/Limbic systemit controls:1.Smell2.Long term memory3.Libido/sexual urgeB.Diencephalona.Hypothalamusit controls:i.Temperature(thermoregulation center)ii.Thirstiii.Appetite(satiety center)iv.Blood pressurev.Sleep & wakefulnessvi.Some emotional responses (excitement,fearknown cause,anxietyunknown cause)vii.Pituitary gland functionsb.Thalamusit acts as a relay station for sensation.C.Brain Stema.Midbrain (Mesencephalon)acts as a relay station forsightandhearingi.Control size and response of pupil & hearing activity.Pupil (located at the center of iris)regulates the amount of light entering the eyesii.Normal size of pupil1.In daylight:2-4 mm2.Dim light:4-8 mm3.Average:2-3 mm4.Fully dilated:9-10 mm*** Isocoriaequal size of pupil*** Anisocoriaunequal size of pupil; indicates a damage to midbrain.

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Term
Fall
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Tags
Intracranial pressure, Traumatic brain injury

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