Introduction to Sociology Study guide exam 2 fall 2007 - Introduction to Sociology Study guide for Exam 2 Chapters 4 6 and 8 Key Terms Macrosociology

Introduction to Sociology Study guide exam 2 fall 2007 -...

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Introduction to Sociology Study guide for Exam 2 Chapters, 4, 6, and 8 Key Terms Macrosociology - a nalysis of social life focusing on broad features of society Microsociology – focus on the smallest, most immediately visible parts of social life Culture – language, beliefs, values, behaviours, gestures, and material objects Outside: look and act like others Inside: think and feel like others Social structure – the framework that surrounds us; the organized pattern of social relationships and social institutions Social class large number of people with similar amounts of income and education who work at jobs that are roughly comparable in prestige Status set –all the statuses that an individual occupies Ascribed status positions an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life Achieved status – attained by virtue of independent effort ; positions that are earned Status inconsistency – a contradiction or mismatch between statuses Status – the position that someone occupies in society or a social group ; our statuses serve as guides for our behavior Master status – your most important status ; it cuts across the other statuses than an individual occupies Role the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status ; they lay out what is expected of people *statuses are occupie d ; roles are played Group – people who regularly interact with one another; a collection of individuals who: Interact and communicate with each other Share goals and norms Have an awareness of themselves as “we” Social institutions the organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs Mechanical solidarity – a shared consciousness that people experience as a result of performing the same or similar tasks Organic solidarity – solidarity based on the interdependence brought about by the division of labor Division of labor – splitting of society’s tasks into specialties Gemeinschaft society – type of society in which life is intimate – The Amish Geselleschaft society – type of society dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and self interest – The USA Social cohesion – degree to which members of society feel united by shared values and other social bonds The parts of Social Interaction: Stereotypes assumptions of what people a re like, whether true or false Personal Space how we protect it:
Distance zones or comfort zones : Intimate distance – 18” Personal distance – 18” to 4’ Social distance – 4 to 12’ Public distance – extending beyond 12’ Touching – can have different meaning in different societ ies and also between genders Eye Contact Role conflict - conflicts that you feel between roles because the expectations attached to one role are incompatible with the expectations of another role.

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