A Continuing Past (Summary) - THE PHILIPPINES THE...

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THE PHILIPPINES: THE CONTINUING PAST Chapter 1: PHILIPPINE COLONIAL SET-UP: ON THE EVE OF WWII American plan for neo-colonialism o Filipinos had national identity but with a steadily eroded sense of national consciousness because: 1) Of massive campaign of acculturation 2) Of the process of miseducation 3) Of the implantation of American political institution and customs in the evolving colonial society o The set up that allowed the Americans to establish a colonial economy suited to their imperialist motives with minimal objection from Filipinos who had little understanding of the operation of imperialist exploitation and whose attention was in any case adroitly drawn to the prospect of gradual expansion of their political autonomy 1) 1896 Revolution against the Spanish colonialism had given the Filipino people insufficient experience to cope with the more subtle techniques of American imperialism 2) Although the anti-Spanish struggle was rooted in economic exploitation, the personal abuses committed by the Spaniards and their blatant denial of basic political and civil rights became the principal subjects of ilustrado articulation 3) Andres Bonifacio and his group of revolutionarios did not go much beyond general formulations for a more egalitarian society to be established after the Spaniards were expelled 4) The attention of the people was only focused primarily on the attainment of political independence o Factors and impeded a correct understanding of colonial reality 1) Miseducation 2) Public School system 3) American-oriented media 4) Colonial politics 5) The fairly rapid Filipinization of the bureaucracy o An understanding of imperialism which is seen on the peoples awareness of the interrelation between mass poverty and the colonial economy are evidenced by the slogans, programs of action and demands by: 1) The Sakdal movement of the mid-1930s 2) The labor unions of Central Luzon which came under the influence of the newly-established Communist Party o American economic policies, particularly free trade , had developed an economy based on agricultural exports to the US and imports of manufactured goods which came overwhelming form the same source results: 1) Filipino landowners grew rich from the exports of their sugar, copra, hemp and other products to the US 2) Filipino capital was predominantly in agriculture and in trade with only a minimal amount invested to small manufacturing enterprises so the— between 1936 to 1940, 12.6% of Philippine trade was with the US, 7.9% with Japan—American interests accounted for 60% of all foreign investments Philippine state of economy prior to World War II 1. No manufacturing industry to speak of 2. A completely agricultural economy 3. Importing virtually all finished goods while paying for these with the export earnings of the agriculture crops 4. No motor vehicles, fuel and tire industry that could keep an army mobile and moving 5. No munitions and weapons industry that could equip it with arms and the logistics it required 6.
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