Chapters 6 - 7 - THE PHILIPPINES THE CONTINUING PAST...

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THE PHILIPPINES: THE CONTINUING PAST Chapter 6: THE RESISTANCE OPPORTUNITIES LOST The two faces of resistance: Against the Japanese and Against both the Japanese and US imperialism Resistance as known by majority of the Filipinos o Unlike the resistance movements in other Asian countries, Filipino resistance was almost completely subservient to the requirements of American military strategy and its directing hand in the Pacific, Gen. Douglas MacArthur. o The fact was to have far-reaching consequences not only on the nature and conduct of the resistance during the occupation but on post-war society and consciousness as well. Subservient Resistance 1. The leaders of most guerilla groups, American and Filipinos were USAFFE officers. Some had been cut off during hasty retreat to Bataan, some managed to escape from Bataan prior to its surrender and others escape from Bataan prior to its surrender and others had refused to obey Gen. Wainwright’s surrender order after the fall of Corregidor. 2. Most guerilla leaders patterned the organization of their groups after the Philippine Army where military ranks were respected and heads of already organized groups would give way if an officer of higher rank became available, especially if he was an American. 3. Once organized, the first major objective of practically every group was to establish contact with MacArthur. 4. Nothing demonstrates more clearly the dependent nature of Filipino resistance than this need to be recognized by and receive instructions from Allied Headquarters in Australia. 5. Different guerrilla groups leaders decided to take command only after succeeding in contacting Australia. 6. MacArthur was successful in forming a strong guerrilla movement to facilitate his reconquest of the Philippines. 7. This was under the understanding with Quezon that after the war, he would resume his post of Philippine military adviser (plus the pay of course) 8. The predominantly military leadership of the resistance movement and above all its close supervision by MacArthur insured that guerrilla groups, except one had no social philosophy and no program from the post-war period. o Only the Hukbalahap (hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon) have an ideological foundation for the betterment of the masses once the Japanese leaves. o Most guerrilla groups simply looked forward to the return of the former socio-political set up before the Japanese occupation and to maintain the people’s faith in the promise of American liberation. The real events during the Japanese occupation o MacArthur’s “specific orders- to lie low before his return” showed that most guerrilla groups only engage the enemy seriously during the American landings. o In fact, many guerrilla recruits remained in the population centers, some even in the employ of the Japanese or the puppet government, for the duration of the occupation- many guerrillas had contacts with the local collaborating leaders or were themselves collaborators.
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  • Spring '12
  • carlas
  • Organizational Communication, MACARTHUR, Guerrilla warfare, Resistance movement, General MacArthur, Resistance during World War II

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