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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Sociology Study Guide for Exam 3 Chapters 9, and 10 Key Terms Social stratification division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property and prestige Ideology beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangements Slavery form of social stratification in which some people own other people Social mobility movement up or down the social ladder Estate stratification system nobility, clergy, serfs (commoners) Jim Crow law When slavery ended in the US, it was replaced with a racial caste system, in which everyone was marked for life at birth Colonialism process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources Neocolonialism- the economic and political dominance of the Least Industrialized Nations by the Most Industrialized Nations Social class a large group of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power, and prestige Wealth Primary dimension of social class; consists of property and income Income flow of money Status symbols items used to describe a status Power ability to get your way despite the resistance of others Power Elite top people in US corporations, military, and politics who make the nations major decisions (C. Wright Mills) Prestige respect or regard; linked to occupational status 1. Pay more 2. Require more education 3. Entail more abstract thought 4. Offer greater autonomy (independence or self direction) Status social ranking Status consistent - rank high or low on all three dimensions of social class Status inconsistent people who rank higher on some dimensions than on others Life chances Intergenerational mobility the change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next Structural mobility movement that is attributable to changes in the structure of society, not to individual efforts Poverty lacking resources to meet basic needs Poverty line official measure of poverty set by the government Income deficit how far a familys income falls below the poverty line; the average income deficit among poor families is $6602 Feminization of poverty a trend whereby most poor families are headed by women Culture of poverty assumption that the values and behavior of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people; parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children Concepts Is social stratification universal? yes Historically what were the most likely reason someone would become enslaved? debt, crime, war Characteristics of a caste system status is determined by birth and is lifelong; a caste system is built on ascribed status Brahman priest and teachers Kshatriya rulers and solders Vaishya merchants and traders Shudra peasants and laborers Dalit outcasts; degrading or polluting labor outcasts...
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- Fall '07