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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Sociology Study Guide for Exam 3 Chapters 9, and 10 Key Terms Social stratification – division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property and prestige Ideology – beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangements Slavery – form of social stratification in which some people own other people Social mobility – movement up or down the social ladder Estate stratification system – nobility, clergy, serfs (commoners) Jim Crow law – When slavery ended in the US, it was replaced with a racial caste system, in which everyone was marked for life at birth Colonialism – process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources Neocolonialism- the economic and political dominance of the Least Industrialized Nations by the Most Industrialized Nations Social class – a large group of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power, and prestige Wealth – Primary dimension of social class; consists of property and income Income – flow of money Status symbols – items used to describe a status Power – ability to get your way despite the resistance of others Power Elite – top people in US corporations, military, and politics who make the nation’s major decisions (C. Wright Mills) Prestige – respect or regard; linked to occupational status 1. Pay more 2. Require more education 3. Entail more abstract thought 4. Offer greater autonomy (independence or self direction) Status – social ranking Status consistent - rank high or low on all three dimensions of social class Status inconsistent – people who rank higher on some dimensions than on others Life chances Intergenerational mobility – the change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next Structural mobility – movement that is attributable to changes in the structure of society, not to individual efforts Poverty – lacking resources to meet basic needs Poverty line – official measure of poverty set by the government Income deficit – how far a family’s income falls below the poverty line; the average income deficit among poor families is $6602 Feminization of poverty – a trend whereby most poor families are headed by women Culture of poverty – assumption that the values and behavior of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people; parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children Concepts Is social stratification universal? – yes Historically what were the most likely reason someone would become enslaved? – debt, crime, war Characteristics of a caste system – status is determined by birth and is lifelong; a caste system is built on ascribed status Brahman – priest and teachers Kshatriya – rulers and solders Vaishya – merchants and traders Shudra – peasants and laborers Dalit – outcasts; degrading or polluting labor – outcasts...
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course SOCI 111 taught by Professor Gradstudents during the Fall '07 term at Abilene Christian University.
- Fall '07