The_Problem_of_Energy

The_Problem_of_Energy - THE PROBLEM OF ENERGY HANS MARK THE...

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THE PROBLEM OF ENERGY HANS MARK THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING APRIL 30, 2004
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I. Worldwide Non-Renewable Energy Resources: (One QUAD is 10 15 British Thermal Units) Fossil Fuels Oil (Known) 15,500 QUADS Gas (Known) 16,000 QUADS Oil and Gas (Probable unexploited 63,000 QUADS Resources) Coal (Known) 157,500 QUADS Nuclear Fuel Uranium 94,500 QUADS Uranium (Breeder Reactors) 10 8 QUADS Worldwide Renewable Energy Resource: The Sun is the source of all renewable energy, hydro, wind, biomass solar heating and cooling and electrical: Solar Radiation Delivered to Entire Land Mass 780,000 QUADS/year Solar Radiation on an Area of 40,000 Square Miles 600 QUADS/year (a square about 200 x 200 miles) Worldwide Energy Consumption: Total World Energy Consumption 600 QUADS/year U.S. Energy Consumption 110 QUADS/year The important conclusion to be drawn from this table is that there are significant energy resources available for the remainder of this century given the current rate of energy consumption. The problem is that given estimated economic growth in the next two decades, the most easily available known resources, oil and gas, may become unavailable or very expensive by the middle of the 21 st century. All the other resources listed have more serious environmental and economic problems that make their recovery and employment more difficult.
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II. Geographic Distribution of Oil and Gas (Known Resources) Oil: 15,500 QUADS Gas: 16,000 QUADS Saudi Arabia 26.2% Russia 28.3% Iraq 11.5% Iran 15.5% Iran 9.9% Qatar 6.6% Kuwait 9.7% Saudi Arabia 3.6% United Arab Emirates 6.3% United Arab Emirates 3.4% Russia 5.4% Algeria 2.6% Venezuela 5.0% Venezuela 2.5% Libya 3.0% Indonesia 2.5% Nigeria 2.9% Nigeria 2.1% Mexico 2.2% Iraq 1.9% United States 2.2% United States 2.9% All others: 15.7% All others: 28.1% The most important conclusions to be drawn from this table are that five nations, all in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates have almost two thirds of the known reserves in their territories (63.6%), that Russia is the “Saudi Arabia” of natural gas with 28.3% of the resource and that 31% of known natural gas is also located in the Middle East in Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Iraq. The near term problem with oil and gas lies in the political instability of the region where much of the resource is located.
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III. U.S. Energy Production, Imports and Consumption (1999) (QUADS per year) Primary Production (Quadrillion Btu) Petroleum 15.06 Natural Gas 19.20 Coal 23.15 Nuclear Power 7.74 Renewable Energy 6.69 Other 1.66 Total Primary Production 73.50 Net Imports (Quadrillion Btu) Petroleum (including SPR) 21.19 Natuural Gas 3.50 Coal/Other (-indicates export) -0.96 Total Net Imports 23.73 Total Production and Imports 97.23 Consumption (Quadrillion Btu) Petroleum Products 38.25 Natural Gas
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The_Problem_of_Energy - THE PROBLEM OF ENERGY HANS MARK THE...

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