Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter 2: Verbal Communication: Using...

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Chapter 2: Verbal Communication: Using Speech and Language It is important to study how animals communicate because it answers the following question: o Do human beings communicate in ways that are unique to them, or are they just one more animal that communicates in basically the same way? 1. The Animal Kingdom: Communicating without Language The Case of Clever Hans o A horse called Hans would recognize numbers and calculate math problems by indicating the correct answer by tapping of his forefoot o It was believed that Hans understood and using language as effectively as a human being o Later, it was discovered that Hans was receiving unintentional “cues” from his owner and strangers that enabled the horse to start and stop tapping in exactly the right way later, called the Clever Hans effect o In conclusion, Hans did not understand the human language Communicating with Learned Signs o It is concluded that animal communication is based on inherited biological abilities, that is, instincts (among simpler animals) and on learned signs for those closer to human beings on a evolutionary scale Human beings learn various kinds of symbols and interpret them in ways that are parallel to their meaning to others in their language community Animals respond to signs Trying to Teach Apes to Talk o Apes had difficultly because of their vocal physiology was not able to form speech sounds o Apes do not have elaborate brains that is required for speech o The Clever Hans effect was demonstrated when teaching the apes to use sign language o Apes have a very short memory span and was restricted to the here and now 2. The Human Experience: The Development of Speech and Language The Beginnings: Gaining the Ability to Talk o The ability to speak and use language came with the Cro-Magnon people about 30,000 years ago o No one knows whether human beings began speaking one initial language, which spread and were modified, or whether distinct languages were developed locally in various places
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o By modern times, there were literally thousands of different languages in use Expanding Verbal Communication: Conquering Time and Space o Being able to talk allowed each new generation to invent at least some new and additional ideas, procedures, and technological for solving problems and pass them on orally One consequence was a development of ever more efficient techniques of agriculture and food preservation
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course COMM 1113 taught by Professor Miller during the Spring '08 term at The University of Oklahoma.

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Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter 2: Verbal Communication: Using...

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