Review for Test #1

Review for Test #1 - Review Readings All of Chapters: 1,...

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Review Readings All of Chapters: 1, 14, 15, 16, 18 Chapter 17: (17.2 – 17.5) Chapter 20: (20.1) Chapter 21: (21.1 – 21.3) Chapter 22: (22.1) Chapter 24: (24.1) Keywords Adaptation: a trait that increases the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce compared to individuals without the trait. Atom: the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element. Autotroph: “self-feeder”; normally, a photosynthetic organism; a producer. Binomial System: Biodiversity: the total number of species within an ecosystem and the resulting complexity of interactions among them. Cell: the smallest unit of life, consisting, at a minimum, of an outer membrane that encloses a watery medium containing organic molecules, including genetic material composed of DNA. Cell Theory: Chromosome: a single DNA double helix together with proteins that help to organize the DNA. Community: all the interacting populations within an ecosystem. Conclusion: in the scientific method, the decision about the validity of a hypothesis on the basis of experimental evidence. Control: that portion of an experiment in which all possible variables are held constant; in contrast to the “experimental” portion, in which a particular variable is altered. Cytoplasm: the material contained within the plasma membrane of a cell, exclusive of the nucleus. Deductive Reasoning: the process of generating hypotheses about how a specific experiment or observation will turn out. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): a molecule composed of deoxyribose nucleotides; contains the genetic information of all living cells. Domain: the broadest category for classifying organisms; organisms are classified into three domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Element: a substance that cannot be broken down, of converted, to a simpler substance by ordinary chemical means. Energy: the capacity to do work. Eukaryotic: referring to cells of organisms of the domain Eukarya (plants, animals, fungi, and protists). Eukaryotic cells have genetic material enclosed within a membrane-bound organelles.
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Evolution: the descent of modern organisms with modification from preexisting life-forms; strictly speaking, any change in the proportions of different genotypes in a population from one generation to the next. Experiment: in the scientific method, the testing of a hypothesis by carefully controlled observations, leasing to a conclusion. Gene: the unit of heredity; a segment of DNA located at a particular place on a chromosome that encodes the information for the amino acid sequence of a protein, and hence particular traits. Heterotroph: literally, “other-feeder”; an organism that eats other organisms; a consumer. Homeostasis:
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Review for Test #1 - Review Readings All of Chapters: 1,...

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