Anthropology Exam 2

Anthropology Exam 2 - Anthropology 101 Exam 2 Study Guide...

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Anthropology 101 – Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 6: Introduction to Primates Mammalian Characteristics o Body Hair o Long Gestations Period Live Birth o Mammary Glands o Heterodont o Endothermy o Increased Brain Size Primate Characteristics: Limbs and Locomotion o Tendency toward erect posture (derived) o Flexible, generalized limb structure (ancestral) o Prehensile (derived) 5 digits (ancestral) Opposable thumb/divergent big toe (derived) Nails (derived) Claws (ancestral) Tactile pads at the ends of digits (derived) Diet and Teeth o No dietary specialization (ancestral) o Omnivorous o Adaptive Potential – wide and varied menu o Adaptive downside – competition with other specialized species o Generalized dentition Senses and the Brain o Color Vision (derived) Diurnal Nocturnal o Depth Perception (derived) Stereoscopic (3D) vision Binocular vision Specialized structures of brain o Decreased reliance on olfaction (derived) o Expanded and complex brain (derived) Maturation, Learning and Behavior o Longer Gestation Period (derived) Reduced number of offspring
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Delayed maturation Extension of entire life span o Greater dependence on flexible, learned behavior o Social grouping (derived) o Diurnal activity (derived) Diet and Teeth o Teeth Types Incisors Canines Premolars Molars o Dental Formula Ancestral – 3:1:4:3 New World – 2:1:3:3 Old World – 2:1:2:3 Locomotion o Quadrupedal Limbs of equal length – arboreal, terrestrial o Vertical Clinging and Leaping Use lower body as a spring Long hind limbs o Brachiation Longer arms than legs o Bipedal Longer legs than arms Tarsiers: Anatomical Intermediate Ancestral (Prosimian) Anthropoid (Derived) Nocturnal Enclosed, bony eye socket Large ears DNA arrangement Grooming claw Unfused mandible Anthropoids o Larger body size o Larger brain o Reduced reliance on olfaction Absences of rhinarium o Increased reliance and vision o Greater degree of color vision o Back of eye socket protected by bony plate o Fused mandible
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o More generalized dentition Lack of dental comb o Increased parental care o Longer gestation and maturation Old vs. New World Monkeys o Predominantly arboreal o Diurnal o Social o Omnivorous o Quadrupedal o Origins in Africa o Separated 30-40 mya Hominoids o Generally larger body size o Absence of tail o Shortened trunk o Arms larger than legs (apes) o Differences and musculature of shoulder joint o More complex behavior o More complex brain and enhance cognitive abilities o Increased period of infant development and dependency Primate Behavior Evolution of Behavior o Behavioral ecology Animals do not evolve alone All components of ecosystems evolve together Behaviors evolved through the operation of natural selection o Goals How behaviors influence reproductive fitness How ecological factors influence development Non-human Primate Social Groups
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Anthropology Exam 2 - Anthropology 101 Exam 2 Study Guide...

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