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Historical Developments in CIA

Historical Developments in CIA - Major Historical...

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Major Historical Developments Several events have played pivotal roles in shaping and functioning of US intel. 1. The Creation of COI and OSS (1940-1941) 1. 1940- US has National Intel Establishment 2. Precedents to CIA were COI (Coordinator of Information) and OSS (Office of Strategic Services) Both created by FDR 3. COI and OSS were headed by William Donovan, advocated creation after trips to Britain preceding WWII. He believed US needed as central of an intel agency as Britain. 4. Roosevelt gave Donovan freedom, but also limited him to his authority, esp w/ Military. 5. COI and OSS were also important for 3 reasons. i. Both were heavily influenced by British Intel practices.- particularly emphasis on covert action with Guerillas. ii. Served as a training ground for the Allied victory in WWII, iii. OSS had a difficult relationship with the US Military. Mil. Leaders were suspect of intel leaders and org. ops. The Joint Chiefs of Staff dictated that OSS become a part of its structure, did not want an independent civilian intel org. This tension has continued until today, 2004 congress and Defense Dept. stopped expansion of National intel authority 2. Pearl Harbor (1941) Classic intel failure, US overlooked many signals showing that processes and expenditures were flawed, and important pieces of info not being shared. Mirror imaging played a role, blinding policy makers to view Tokyo differently. Mission ater WWII was to prevent a recurrence of such a strategic surprise. 3. Magic and Ultra (1941-1945) Signals intelligence - ability to intercept and decode Axis communications. MAGIC - US interceptions of Japanese communications ULTRA - British, US interceptions of German communications. Wartime experience demonstrated importance of signals intel. Also helped to solidify British/US intel coop. IN US, the military controlled Magic and ultra. Caused friction b/t Military and OSS. Now, NSA is in charge of signals comm.. 4. The National Security Act (1947) Gave legal basis to intelligence community, created CIA under DCI (director of central intelligence.) The act signaled the importance of intel in the nascent Cold War and made the intelligence function permanent. The Act made the existence and functioning of the intel community a part of the cold war consensus.
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Under the Act o The DCI could be a military officer, but the CIA was not under military control.
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