EOS15510.11.07

EOS15510.11.07 - Evolution of Climate Models o Atmospheric...

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10/23/07 Evolution of Climate Models: o Atmospheric Variables: Saw how solar radiation, motion, moisture, pressure and temperature affected climate. o Earth Surface Variables : Solar radiation, Albedo, evaporation and heat exchange between the surface and the atmosphere- atmosphere backradiates to earth, earth radiates back to atmosphere. Runoff, etc. o Model the relationship between variables and earth surface variable. o Ocean: Earliest models modeled surface of the ocean. Now we can model the ocean in itself. The upward exchange o fgas, heat and evaporation, the horizontal exchange of friction between atmosphere and ocean itself, the currents, and also the ice and how it changes surface, climate, and the volume of oceans on the surface of the earth. Measurement of pollutants in the atmosphere: Burnng of brown coal put in a lot of sulfates and caused acid rain, destroying plants, amphibians and fish, etc. Europeans began to stop polluting. Sulfates act as nucleation sites for water molecules in the atmosphere, this causes more clouds. We see it on a continental scale. Not just on a local scale- sulfur has a Massive impact on cloud cover. Also produce chemical and soot particles called aerosols. These aerosols increased reflectivity and decreased the amount of incoming solar radiation by about 1%. This caused an overall cooling effect by result of pollutants: This is called Global Dimming- Global Dimming: particles of pollutants in the air that blocks sunlight and cools the earth. Decrease in amount of solar radiation reaching the planet. In India at any given moment receives 10% less sunlight than the rest of the earth. They have a lot of dust and pollutants in the air. Global Brightening: Since the 1970s the Planet has been brightening since the passage of pollutant resolutions phasing aerosols out of factories and diesel engines. Now we are letting back more sunlight and also enhancing global warming. We stalled enhancement of global warming with the pollutants for a while. Volcanoes: in the late 1990s we realized that there are natural sources of aerosols in the form of volcanoes, dust, ashe, sulfur etc. They are now incorporated into our climate models. Global Carbon Cycle: What happens to Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere. Where does it go? What absorbs it? o 730 units of CO2 at any one moment of time in the atmosphere o The ocean has 38,800 o Carbon dioxide is stored in plants, molecules, etc. o Understanding of this carbon cycle and the retention rates of it o To look at global geochemistry cycles is better to understand overall
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global warming. See Lecture Notes- Mid 1970s- present evolution of climate models. o We also have sub-models in the form of vegetation and atmospheric chemistry. These fully couple and integrate these models in the future.
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