Saw how solar radiation, motion, moisture,
pressure and temperature affected climate.
Earth Surface Variables
: Solar radiation, Albedo, evaporation and heat
exchange between the surface and the atmosphere- atmosphere
backradiates to earth, earth radiates back to atmosphere. Runoff, etc.
Model the relationship between variables
and earth surface variable.
Earliest models modeled surface of the ocean. Now we can model the
ocean in itself. The upward exchange o fgas, heat and evaporation, the horizontal
exchange of friction between atmosphere and ocean itself, the currents, and also
the ice and how it changes surface, climate, and the volume of oceans on the
surface of the earth.
Measurement of pollutants in the atmosphere: Burnng of brown coal put in a lot
of sulfates and caused acid rain, destroying plants, amphibians and fish, etc.
Europeans began to stop polluting.
Sulfates act as nucleation sites for water molecules in the atmosphere, this causes
more clouds. We see it on a continental scale. Not just on a local scale- sulfur has
a Massive impact on cloud cover. Also produce chemical and soot particles called
aerosols. These aerosols increased reflectivity and decreased the amount of
incoming solar radiation by about 1%. This caused an overall cooling effect by
result of pollutants: This is called Global Dimming-
particles of pollutants in the air that blocks sunlight and cools
the earth. Decrease in amount of solar radiation reaching the planet. In India at
any given moment receives 10% less sunlight than the rest of the earth. They have
a lot of dust and pollutants in the air.
Since the 1970s the Planet has been brightening since the
passage of pollutant resolutions phasing aerosols out of factories and diesel
engines. Now we are letting back more sunlight and also enhancing global
warming. We stalled enhancement of global warming with the pollutants for a
in the late 1990s we realized that there are natural sources of aerosols
in the form of volcanoes, dust, ashe, sulfur etc. They are now incorporated into
our climate models.
Global Carbon Cycle:
What happens to Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere.
Where does it go? What absorbs it?
730 units of CO2 at any one moment of time in the atmosphere
The ocean has 38,800
Carbon dioxide is stored in plants, molecules, etc.
Understanding of this carbon cycle and the retention rates of it
To look at global geochemistry cycles is better to understand overall