century humanity was the most educated and homicidal in history.
- is physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
Animals exhibit social aggression and silent aggression, and they both involve separate
regions of the brain.
- is aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself.
- is aggression that is a means to some other end.
Aggression as biology
Instinct theory and evolutionary psychology
- Human aggression springs from
self destructive impulse. Aggressive energy is
- unlearned and
universal, is a pattern that is exhibited by all members of a species.
also innate mechanisms for inhibiting such aggression, ex making ourselves
defenseless. Although aggression in biologically influenced, the human
propensity to aggress may not qualify as instinctive behavior. Aggression is
adaptive, for our distant ancestors, it was a strategy for gaining resources,
defending against attack, intimidating or eliminating male rivals for females.
- aggression is a complex behavior and no one spot in the
brain controls it. There are neural systems that facilitate aggression, and were
found when scientists activated areas in the brain and hostility arose. When
they deactivated them, hostility decreased. Abnormal brains can contribute to
abnormally aggressive behavior.
- a fearless, impulsive, temper prone kid is at risk of
adolescent violent behavior. The recipe for aggressive behavior combines a
gene that alters neurotransmitter balance w/ childhood maltreatment. Genes
predispose some kids to be more sensitive and responsive to maltreatment,
nature and nurture interact.
- when ppl are provoked, alcohol can unleash
aggression. Violent ppl are more likely to drink, and become aggressive when
intoxicated. Alcohol enhances aggressiveness by reducing ppl self awareness
and by reducing their ability to consider consequences. Alcohol de-
individuates and it dis-inhibits. Teen boy and male adults with high
testosterone levels are more prone to delinquency, hard drug use, and
aggressive response to provocation. There’s important neural, genetic, and
biochemical influences on aggression.
Aggression as response to frustration
In soda machine example where man puts in coin for coke and doesn’t get anything,
frustration leads to aggression.
Frustration- aggression theory
- says that frustration
triggers a readiness to aggress.
- is the blocking of goal directed behavior. In
malfunctioning vending machine, it blocks our attaining a goal. Frustration grows when
our motivation to attain a goal is very strong, when we expected glorification and when
the blocking is complete.
We learn to inhibit direct retaliation when others disapprove or punish us, instead we