Geol 112 online final study guide

Geol 112 online final study guide - 1 List at least four...

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Unformatted text preview: 1. List at least four pieces of evidence to support the idea that continents have moved over the earth’s surface. ** • Plate tectonics: Plates are constantly moving by destroying and creating plates thru divergent and convergent boundaries. • Coal deposits in Antarctica. Coal needs to be made in warm and wet environments. Antarctica is cold and dry. Means it used to be in a warmer, more tropical environment. • Animal fossils found on multiple diff continents are the same. Animals could not travel across the oceans that were separating the continents…must have been connected. 2. Explain the difference between a plutonic and a volcanic igneous rock. ** • Plutonic rock: is a rock that forms from magma which crystallizes below the surface. It’s a slow process because the magma cools down very slowly which is what causes the crystals • Volcanic igneous rock: where lava comes in contact with cold water or cold air and solidifies at the surface. It’s a quicker process then in plutonic rocks. Since it is a quicker process the crystals are not as big and as noticeable as in a plutonic rock because they do not have the same amount of time to form. 3. What is an earthquake and what causes earthquakes to happen? ** An earthquake is a sudden release of energy that is stored in the earth’s crust. The result of this energy creates a seismic wave. Earthquakes are caused subduction zones. 4. What are scientists using to try and predict earthquakes? One method scientists are trying to use to predict earthquakes are foreshocks. Foreshocks are smaller earthquakes that usually occur before a major earthquake 5. Which dating technique is used to date samples younger than 50,000 years? Carbon 14 6. How old is the earth and what is the age based on? ** 4.5 billion Years, This age was determined by using the radiometric age dating technique. 7. What is (are) the mechanism(s) for evolution? • The mechanisms for evolution are(in order) Descent and the genetic differences that are heritable and passed on to the next generation; • Mutation, • migration (gene flow), • genetic drift, • natural selection 8. From your textbook – what causes extinction? Why should extinction rates vary through time? According to the text book extinction results from huge events like diseases, competitive forces, or a restriction on the environment. Another way a species can become extinct is if evolves so much that it becomes a totally new species entirely. Extinction rates vary through time depending on the environment and the species that exist within them. If you have a bunch of species that do not adapt to changing environments then you might have a higher extinction rate because they die out. Or there are periods of mass extinctions like the dinosaurs....
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course GEOL 112 taught by Professor Workmanford during the Fall '08 term at CSU Fresno.

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Geol 112 online final study guide - 1 List at least four...

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