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ENVS study sheet - ENVS Exam 1 Study Sheet Chapter One...

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ENVS Exam 1 Study Sheet: Chapter One: Understanding Our Environment Accuracy: correctness of measurements Precision: repeatability of results Deductive Reasoning: logical reasoning from general to specific Inductive Reasoning: reasoning from many observations to produce a general rule – understanding environmental issues Probability: measure of how likely something is to occur – always a measure of uncertainty Basic Principles of Science: 1. Empiricism = learning through real phenomena – observation (usually always environmental studies 2. Uniformitarianism = same process throughout time & space – theories that shaped the past continue to do so today 3. Parsimony = simpler explanation is preferable 4. Uncertainty = explanations change with new evidence 5. Repeatability = experiments repeated with same concluding results 6. Proof is Elusive = science remains a “theory” – it cannot be proved Natural Experiment: observation of events already happening Manipulative Experiments: conditions deliberately altered Controlled Study: compare a treatment group to a control group Blind Experiments: analyst doesn’t know until after results are interpreted Double-Blind Experiments: neither patient nor analyst knows until after results are interpreted Environmentalism: influence attitudes & policies effecting our environment Environmental Ethics & World Views: 1. Anthropocentric: humans are above nature, focused on human needs 2. Biocentric: all living things have the right to exist 3. Ecofeminism: attitudes in society are based on dominance and ideas of superiority 4. Stewardship: our role to take care of resources given to us (many religions support) Models: simple representations of phenomena – complex and sophisticated Scientific Consensus: general agreement among informed scholars Paradigm Shifts: major changes in explanatory frameworks – changes a theory Morals: distinction between right and wrong Values: ultimate worth Intrinsic: value simply because they exist Instrumental: value because they can be used as tools Systems: Networks of interactions among many interdependent factors Open: take inputs from outside system (ex: sun to earth) Closed:
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