American Government Chapter 15 & 16 Notes Quizlet: Chapter 15 The U.S. Court System 1. How were the federal courts established? Article III of The Constitution created a Supreme Court. With this congressional mandatea three level federal court was designed made up of the district court, the courts ofappeals, and the Supreme Court.Established at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 with significant failures of thenation’s court. The framers did not establish a three court system!! (:They are basic and only establishedone tier. OH DEM BASIC BITCHES:) Congress established the three tiers.“A judge can only pronounce a decision when litigation has arisen.” A judge is conversant only with special cases, and he cannot act until the cause has beenduly brought before the court.The Americans have acknowledge the right of judges to found their decision of theConstitutionrather than on the laws.District Courts:oThe first level of federal courts they were set up in 1789.oThey exercise original jurisdictionin federal matters. That is, they serve as trialcourts for all cases arising under the laws of the United States.oThe district court is located in the Sandra Day O’Connor Federal CourthouseCourts of Appeals:oThey stand midway between the district court and the US Supreme Court.o12th court hears Washington DC Cases.o3 Judge BenchoCreated by Congress in 1891 to ease the Supreme Court's workload.o11 judicial circuits of the 50 states. oAppeals are accepted on the basis of (1) an improper courtroom procedure or (2)an incorrect application of the law.Supreme Court The nine justices who occupied the Supreme Court bench serve as the final decisionmakers on all questions of federal law. Marbury v. Madison -- how the courts gained the power of thejudicial reviewThey can check and balance the other courts.oJustices: Made up of eight associate justices and a chief justice. The chief Justicechairs the court weekly conferences and presides when the court is in session.Congress has the power to change the number of Supreme Court Justices. TheJustices are appointed by the president but must be confirmed by the Senate. Theyhold their seats for Life unless they resign, retire, or are impeached.oJurisdiction: They have original jurisdiction over two types of cases 1 rows thatinvolve two or more of the states and to those that affect investors or other publicministers. Most cases reach the high court on an appeal calleda writ of certiorarithat the high courts use to ask the lower courts for help.
oAt Work: Extensive briefs(written summaries of legal precedents and otherinformation) are filed to support the oral arguments. They vote on each caseduring Friday conferences. At least six justices must be present, and at least fourmust agree before a decision can be made. Plenary review, with oral arguments by attorneys, is granted in about 100 cases per term.
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