American Government Chapter 9 & 10 Notes Quizlet: Chapter 9 How Laws Are Made: Congress at Work 1. Who originates bills? When a law is first proposed, it is called a bill. Only a member of Congress can formally introduce a bill into the House or Senate. The bill can be written by legislators, private citizens, special-interest groups, the executive branch, or a congressional committee. The Government Printing Office(GPO) prints copies of all bills; they print them with numbers at each line to make it easier to debate about a specific part of the bill. 2. What is the role of committee staffs? Makeup of the Staffs Since 1946, a typical committee staff has been made up of a director, three staff members, and six clerks. When staff members cannot handle the workload, Congress is forced to rely on the executive branch for research and evaluation of new bills. Functions of the Staffs Congressional committee staffs do not establish policy nor do they introduce legislation. These duties are reserved to the members of Congress and to the committees on which they serve. 1. Research : Staff members collect data from the Library of Congress, needed by the committees. 2. Drafting of Bills : Staff members work closely with the Office of Legislative Counsel, to rewrite drafted bills. 3. Investigation: Staff members plan the public hearings that are an important part of the legislative process. 1. Interviewing witnesses 2. Drawing up questions for committee members to ask during the hearings 3. Analyzing the statements of those who testify. 2. Expertise: Staff experts provide technical analyses of complex matters such as taxation or the defence budget. The staff directors supervise the day-to-day operations of their staffs. 3. What is the role of the lobbyist? These organizations try to exert pressure on Congress to pass, defeat, or interpret legislation to their own advantage. Lobbies: Government that plays political games Federal law limits the amount of money a pressure group can give to a political campaign. The limitation of giving money has resulted in political action committees , or (PAC), which pours money into campaign chests. Lobbyists try to obtain favored treatment for their clients. Lobbyists play a number of roles: o Drafting new legislation They provide expert help in drafting favorable bills.
o Expert testimony They often testify about legislation that affects their clients o Application of pressure They put pressure on congress to vote for their bill, and if they don’t want a bill passed, they will work tirelessly to get it vetoed. Lobbyists employ a number of techniques to influence legislation: o Communications They will flood congress with letters, petitions, personal visits, and telephone calls o Contributions Along with cash donations, they will offer a variety of useful services o Social contracts They will host parties, dinners, and other luxurious events.
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- Summer '16
- Mrs. Welty
- American Govt Chap 9&10 Notes, United States Congress