American Government Chapters 1 & 2 Notes Chapter 1 Basic Theories of Government 1. How have governments evolved over the centuries? A primitive society lived simply and communally where all members of the group shared the meat from the hunt and the produce.Tribes developed as an extension of the family or clan with no formal body of laws.Tribal governments were usually developed out of the extended family which is a group made up of several generations linked by birth and marriage.oThe tribal council would settle disputes, uphold tribal customs, and supervise religious ceremonies.The First Civilizations:Various tribes settled in river valleys where they built the first great civilizations and the soil grew so much food that some people were able to leave theland and become full-time builders or crafters. oYet, the less civilized tribes often raided the new settlements by burning houses, taking cows and people. The upper class nobles would select the kings who wouldrule over the lower classes.The City-State:This emerged as the basic unit of government. A city-state was a city that was an independent country but so small like a city. oMost of the inhabitants were farmers, middle class skilled laborers, and the nobles/priests who administered the political, economic, and religious affairs.oThey would have to fight constant wars with neighbors and the strongest cities would raid and fight off offenses.Early Empires:In about 1700 B.C., King Hammurabi of Babylonia told officials to carve the nation’s laws in stone so everyone could see it. The capable emperors would keep lawand order, collect taxes, and carry on national trade.Greek and Roman Contributions: They gave human beings a new sense of personal worthwhere they thought life was to be enjoyed and the government’s role was to make it a secure world to enjoy. oGreece invented democracy where Athens men discussed public issues as an Assembly. Some believed that this was too much freedom and that the city would eventually elect tyrants as rulers. (Hmmm @Donald Trump?) #TRUMPISBAEoThe Romans had a limited representative government where true power was in thehands of the elite. There were two great contributions they made to the Western government were codified laws and citizenship.The Growth of Feudalism:After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the Roman Catholic Church was the supporting beacon that preserved learning, culture, and history, it became a kind of super government in Europe. However the power was challenged before the Protestant Reformation of the 1500s and slowlyfeudalismgrew out of the chaos. oMonarchy was the most common form of government; kings and queens ruled as long at the nobles supported them. They would hand out fiefs, of land, to the
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- Summer '16
- Mrs. Welty
- Government, American Govt Chap 1&2 Notes, Form of government