International Relations Review

International Relations Review - International Relations...

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International Relations Review Introduction o It was the unexpected cataclysm of the First World war that stimulated the start of International Relations. o Realism and Liberalism Liberalism sought to correct the human nature through education o Realism and Liberalism are more idealistic than true, (How the world should be) o It is the task of International Relations to apply the scientific method to understand these issues and describe, explain and predict them. The social sciences are entirely probabilistic. E.g. If A, then sometimes B. As social scientists we want to uncover the fundamental relationships help us explain all wars, rather than a specific war. o A Hypothesis must contain explanations, Why or How do wars happen? o There are also Confounding Variables. Confounding meaning to cause It confounds the relationship between 2 variables. o We must never conflate correlation with causation o Conflate: bring together Realism and the Balance of Power o Only thought some sort of systems theory can politics be understood o International-Political systems are formed like economic markets o Co-action of self-regarding units. o City names, empires, or nations define international structures. o Structure emerges from the co-existence of many states. A B x
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o International systems like markets, are individualist in origin, spontaneously generated, and unintended. o Whether or not these units prosper, or die, depends on their own efforts. o In micro theory, or either international politics or of economics, the motivation of actors is assumed , rather than realistically described. o Beyond the survival motive , (the most important to a state), the aims of states may endlessly be varied. o Ranging from ambitions to conquer, or a desire to be merely left alone. o Survival is a pre-requisite to any other goal a state may have. o “The structure selects” o Means that those who conform to an accepted structure and successful practices are more likely to rise to the top and to stay there for a long period of time. o Anarchy o So long as states endure, Anarchy will endure. o States are declining in importance, other actors are gaining ground. Neither reason is cogent as we will see below.. (See attached pages.)
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Anarchic Structures and Balance of Power Violence at Home and Abroad o The state among states conducts its affairs in the brooding shadow of violence. o Because some states may use force at anytime, all states must be prepared to do so – or live at the mercy of the more militarily counterparts. o As among men, among states, the lack of the “World Police” leads to the occurrence of violence. o The most destructive wars after the fall of Napoleon took place not among states, but within them.
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