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1 1 Cellular Organization/ Diversity of Microbes Tree of Life/ Endosymbiosis Aug 29, 2008 Office phone: 231- 9708 LS-1 room 215 2 Comparisons: Cell Sizes and Components Eukaryotic Cell Size Comparisons Smallpox DNA 200nm Rabies Virus RNA Influenzae RNA T4 bacteriophage DNA Tobacco Mosaic Virus Hydrogenosome p 450 Prokaryotic Cell 3 Microbial Evolution: Phylogeny and Taxonomy Systematic biology : A field of study that is concerned with the relationships which exist among groups of organisms, the methods used to determine these relationships, and ways to present this information (taxonomy). ¾ Phylogeny : study of the evolutionary relationships between life forms • molecular analysis of the gene sequences of certain macromolecules (called molecular chronometers) present in cells can be used to determine how microorganisms relate to one another on a phlyogenetic tree • Differences in nucleotide sequences of functionally similar macromolecules are considered a sign of the evolutionary distance that exist between two organisms: Linus Pauling and Emile Zuckerland ----- Carl Woese used their ideas to look at relatedness between prokaryotic microorganisms (rRNA) ¾ Taxonomy : The science of identification, classification and the correct naming of organisms (nomenclature)
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2 4 rRNA Structure S = “Svedberg” – a unit of mass Prokaryotes: three ribosomal RNA molecules: 5S, 16S, and 23S (70S) ¾ “S” stands for Svedberg – a measure of mass based on the sedimentation of a particle in a centrifuge ¾ 16S rRNA gene is sequenced in bacteria Eukaryotes: three ribosomal RNA molecules: 5S, 18S, and 28S (80S) ¾ 18S rRNA gene is sequenced. The 18S RNA is functionally
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2009 for the course BIOL 2604 taught by Professor Sldaniel during the Spring '08 term at Virginia Tech.

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