BIO311C_Chapter_17_part2

BIO311C_Chapter_17_part2 - Genetic code and translation...

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Genetic code and translation Chapter 17 (312-314, 320-325, 327)
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Central dogma
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Codons: Triplets of Bases Genetic information is encoded as a sequence of nonoverlapping base triplets, or codons
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www.wikipedia.org
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Figure 17.5 Second mRNA base U C A G U C A G UUU UUC UUA UUG CUU CUC CUA CUG AUU AUC AUA AUG GUU GUC GUA GUG Met or start Phe Leu Leu lle Val UCU UCC UCA UCG CCU CCC CCA CCG ACU ACC ACA ACG GCU GCC GCA GCG Ser Pro Thr Ala UAU UAC UGU UGC Tyr Cys CAU CAC CAA CAG CGU CGC CGA CGG AAU AAC AAA AAG AGU AGC AGA AGG GAU GAC GAA GAG GGU GGC GGA GGG UGG UAA UAG Stop Stop UGA Stop Trp His Gln Asn Lys Asp Arg Ser Arg Gly U C A G U C A G U C A G U C A G First mRNA base (5 end) Third mRNA base (3 Glu **Initiator or start codon: AUG **Termination or stop codons: UAA, UAG, UGA Universal genetic code!
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Degeneracy of the genetic code Many codons are redundant: two or more codons can code for the same amino acid. Degenerate codons may differ in their third positions
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Genetic code is non-overlapping
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Characteristics of Genetic Code Genetic code is almost universal Genetic code is non-overlapping Genetic code is degenerate
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Reading frame : Reading frame : Gene Gene Start Start Stop Stop polypeptide polypeptide Correct order of amino acids Correct order of amino acids Start triplet must be in frame in frame with the stop triplet xxx
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Codons must be read in the correct reading frame for the specified polypeptide to be produced
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Correlation of polarities in DNA, Correlation of polarities in DNA, mRNA and polypeptide mRNA and polypeptide Moving from 5’ to 3’ end of an mRNA, each successive codon Moving from 5’ to 3’ end of an mRNA, each successive codon is sequentially interpreted into an amino acid, starting with the is sequentially interpreted into an amino acid, starting with the N-terminus and ending with the C-terminus N-terminus and ending with the C-terminus Non-template strand GENE GENE Sense, coding
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Figure 17.13 TRANSCRIPTION TRANSLATION DNA mRNA Ribosome Polypeptide Polypeptide Amino acids tRNA with amino acid attached Ribosome tRNA Anticodon mRNA Trp Phe Gly A G C A A A U G G U U U G G C Codons 5 3 Codon in mRNA Anti-codon in tRNA Translation – molecular components
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tRNA Consists of a single RNA strand - about 80 nucleotides long carries a specific amino acid on one end has an anticodon on the other end
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2009 for the course BIO 51730 taught by Professor Latham during the Fall '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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BIO311C_Chapter_17_part2 - Genetic code and translation...

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