BIO311C_Chapter_17_part_3

BIO311C_Chapter_17_part_3 - Mutations 328-330, 305-306...

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Mutations 328-330, 305-306
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Importance of mutations? Mutations source of all genetic variation – raw material of evolution Mutations also cause detrimental effects – source of many genetic disorders
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Cause of mutations Spontaneous mutations Can occur during DNA replication, repair etc Mutagens Are physical or chemical agents that can cause mutations
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Point mutations Are changes in just one base pair of a gene Can affect protein structure/function
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Types of Point Mutations Point mutations within a gene can be divided into two general categories Base-pair substitutions Base-pair insertions or deletions
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Base pair substitutions Is the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner with another pair of nucleotides Silent (no effect on amino acids) Missense (changes aa that may or may not affect) Nonsense ( introduces a stop codon)
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Figure 17.24 Wild type A U G A A G U U U G G C U A A mRNA 5 Protein Met Lys Phe Gly Stop Carboxyl end Amino end 3 A U G A A G U U U G G U U A A Met Lys Phe Gly Base-pair substitution No effect on amino acid sequence U instead of C Stop A U G A A G U U U A G U U A A Met Lys Phe Ser Stop A U G U A G U U U G G C U A A Met Stop Missense A instead of G Nonsense U instead of A Silent
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Figure 17.5 Second mRNA base
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BIO311C_Chapter_17_part_3 - Mutations 328-330, 305-306...

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