StudyGuideExam2 - Some study guide questions for Exam 2...

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Some study guide questions for Exam 2 Chapters 6, 7, 11 + parts of chapters 26, 27, 48 (Dependent on how much we cover before exam 2) 1) Understand Miller-Urey experiment. What were the results? Compounds such as hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde were formed. Urea was created. 2) What are the three domains of life? Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya 3) What are the characteristic components of prokaryotes? Plasma membrane, cell wall, gas vacuole, ribosomes, fimbrae and pili, flagella, endospore 4) Compare and contrast bacteria and archaea with respect to characteristics discussed in class. Bacteria – cell walls have peptidoglycan Archaea – cell walls do not have peptidoglycan, lipids have ether linkages 5) What is the bacterial cell wall made up of? Is this present in Archaea and Eukaryotes? Peptidoglycan; It is present in bacteria 6) What extracellular structures are present outside the cell wall in certain bacteria? Pili (sex organ), flagella, fimbrae, capsule outside the cell wall 7) What are the functions of the following in bacteria: plasma membrane, gas vacuole, endospore, cell wall, flagella, pili, nucleoid, ribosomes. Plasma membrane – controls what goes in and out Gas vacuole – for buoyancy Endospore – protect the DNA; for survival under harsh conditions Cell wall – shape and protection Flagella – mobility Pili – sex organ Nucleoid – site of DNA Ribosomes – for protein synthesis 8) Do bacteria have membrane bound organelles? Are ribosomes present in bacteria and archaea? No; Ribosomes are present in both domains. 9) What are the energy sources in photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs? Photoautotrophs – Light Chemoautotrophs – Inorganic compounds What is their carbon source? CO2
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10) What are the energy and carbon sources in photoheterotrophs and chemoheterotrophs? (energy)Photoheterotrophs – Light (energy)Chemautotrophs – Organic Compounds (carbon) Both are Organic Compounds 11) What kinds of environments do extreme halophiles and thermophiles live in? What are methanogens? Halophiles – Salty environments Thermophiles – Extremely hot environments Methanogens – Unique way to obtain energy; produces methane from CO2 and H 12) How does the chemistry of Archaeal cell walls differ from bacteria? Archaeal walls do not have peptidoglycan 13) What is unique about Archaeal lipids? Their linkages are ether not ester. 14) What are the similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Prokaryotic – has no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, flagella for movement, capsule Eukaryotic – has a nucleus, membrane bound organelles Similarities – both have ribosomes 15) What are the different types of light microscopes? Light microscopes and electron microscopes
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StudyGuideExam2 - Some study guide questions for Exam 2...

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