study guide Test 3

study guide Test 3 - Anthropology Notes: Test 3 chapters...

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Anthropology Notes: Test 3 chapters 10,11,16,17 Chapter 10 The First Farmers o Paleo -Indian - relating to the earliest inhabitants of the Americas, who arrived from Asia by the Bering land bridge that connected Alaska and Siberia. By 12,000 to 10,000 years ago they were hunting game and living in small groups throughout North America. o Clovis Tradition – Sophisticated stone technology based on a point that was fastened to the end of a spear. o Neolithic - New stone Age – origin of food production, plant cultivation, and animal domestication o Sedentism verses Nomadic – Settled down vs. Constant movement o Costs/Benefits of food production compared to foraging o Pastoralism - Nonindustrial system of plant cultivation in which plots lie fallow for varying lengths of time. o Transhumance – One of two variants of pastorlism; part of the population moves seasonally with the herds while the other part remains in home villages. o Horticulture – synonyms - agriculture, arboriculture, cultivation, farming, floriculture, grounds keeping, viniculture, viticulture Chapter 11 The First Cities and States o Mesopotamia – The area between the Tigris and the Euphrates river in what now southern Iraq and southwestern Iran; Location of the 1 st and states. o Pottery became widespread 7,000 years ago o Jericho – 1 st town o Cuneiform – Early Mesopotamian writing that used a stylus to write wedge-shaped impressions on raw clay; 5,000 years ago o Bronze Age - period in human cultural development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) included techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally-occurring outcroppings of copper ores, and then smelting those ores to cast bronze. o Chiefdom – Ranked Society – Has hereditary inequality, status differences are inherited and distributed along a continuum from the highest-ranking member (chief) to the lowest without any breaks.
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o Agriculture - the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. o States – early states were monarchies, based on agriculture, peasants, Stateshave social classes and a central government. Chapter 16 –Making a living o Adaptive Strategies – Bands – Forage Tribes – Horticulture or pastorlism Chiefdoms and early states – Agriculture o Horticulture - Nonindustrial system of plant cultivation in which plots lie fallow for varying
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2009 for the course ANTHRO anthro 105 taught by Professor Almatera during the Spring '09 term at WVU.

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study guide Test 3 - Anthropology Notes: Test 3 chapters...

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