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Racial_Identity_Lecture_Notes - Racial Ethnic and Reference...

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Racial, Ethnic, and Reference Group Identity Development Racial & Ethnic Identity A sense of group or collective identity based on one’s perception that he or she shares a common heritage with a particular group. Identity Development Theory Addresses the psychological implications of reference-group membership, that is, belief systems that evolve in reaction to perceived differential reference-group memberships Assumption A positive sense of self as a member of a reference group (that is not based on any assumed superiority) is important for psychological health. ** self efficacy for black students is much lower than for white students which may relate to lower standardized test scores** Culture and Development Family, race, ethnicity, and culture (i.e. traditions) provide structure and direction for future generations Children are taught “directly and indirectly, consciously and unconsciously, the instrumental competencies and supportive beliefs and emotions” that are necessary for successful adult life (Ogbu, p. 14)
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