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CHAPTER 5 TISSUES Page 143 1. What is tissue a. Layers or groups of similar cells with a common function 2. List the four major types of tissues a. Epithelial, b. Connective c. Muscle d. Nervous Page 145 1. List the general characteristics of epithelial tissue . a. Found throughout the body. Covers the body or forms the inner lining of body cavities, and lines hollow organs. Always has a free surface or one that is exposed to the outside or to an open internal space. The underside is anchored to connective tissue by a thin, nonliving layer called the basement membrane. Lacks blood vessels; tightly packed; form effective protective barriers; cells readily divide to help injuries heal quickly 2. Explain how epithelial tissues are classified. a. According to shape and number of layers of cells. Page 151 1. Describe the structure of each type of epithelium. a. Simple Squamous epithelium – single layer of thin, flattened cells. Fit tightly together like floor tiles and their nuclei are usually broad and thin. b. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium – single layer of cube-shaped cells; centrally located spherical nuclei. c. Simple Columnar Epithelium - Composed of a single layer of elongated cells whoe nuclei are usually at the same level, near the basement membrane. Can be ciliated - Cilia which extend from free surfaces such as those that aid in moving the egg cell through the uterine tube to the
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uterus. Nonciliated lines the uterus and portions of the digerstive tract. Tissue is thick d. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium – appear stratified or layered but are not. This look occurs because the nuclei are at two or more levels in the row of aligned cells. All cells reach the basement membrane but not all reach the free surface. e. Stratified Squamous Epithelium – named for the shape of the cells forming the outermost layers; consists of many layers of cells, making the tissue relatively thick. f. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium – two or three layers of cuoidal cells that form the lining of a lumen. g. Stratified Columnar Epithelium – several layers of cells. Superficial cells are elongated, whereas the basal layers consist of cube-shaped cells. h. Transitional Epithelium – Specialized to change in response to increased tension. i. Glandular Epithelium – Composed of cells that are specialized to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids. Usually found within columnar or cuboidal epithelium and oner or more of these cells constitutes a gland. 2. Describe the special functions of each type of epithelium a. Simple Squamous Epithelium – substances pass through easily – lines air sacs of lungs where oxygen and CO2 are exchanged; lines blood vessels and forms walls of capillaries b. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium - Lines follicles of thyroid gland, covers the ovaries, lines the kidney tubules and ducts of certain glands. Functions in kidneys during tubular secretion. c.
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