Chapter 7 Skeletal System

Chapter 7 Skeletal System - Chapter 7 Skeletal System Page...

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Chapter 7 Skeletal System Page 195 1. Explain how bones are classified. a. Classified according to their shape – Long, Short, Flat and Irregular 2. List five major parts of a long bone a. Proximal epiphysis, Distal Epiphysis, diaphysis, periosteum, articular cartilage, 3. How do compact and spongy bone differ in structure? a. Compact bone has a continuous extracellular matrix with no gaps and is made of tightly packed tissue. b. Spongy bone consists of branching bony plates; irregular connecting spaces between the plates helps reduce bone weight. It has thin layers of compact bone on the surface. c. A bone usually has compact bone overlying spongy bone – varying with different shaped bones. 4. Describe the microscopic structure of compact bone. a. Osteocytes and layers of extracellular matrix concentrically cluster around a central canal to form a cylinder-shaped unit called an osteon. Many of these units cemented together form the substance of compact bone. b. Each central canal contains blood vessels and nerve fibers surrounded by loose connective tissue. Page 202 1. Describe the development of an intramembranous bone. a. Originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissue – bones of the skull b. Membrane like layers of undifferentiated connective tissue appear at the sites of the future bones. Networks of blood vessels supply the layers. c. These cells enlarge and further differentiate into bone –forming cells called osteoblasts. Spongy bone forms in all directions and some of this spongy bone may form compact bone as spaces fill with bone matrix.
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2. Explain how an endochondral bone develops a. Develop from masses of hyaline cartilage shaped like future bony structures. The cartilage grows for a while and then begins to change; cells enlarge and their lacunae grow. Cartilage cells die and degenerate. Blood vessels and differentiating osteoblasts from the periosteum invade the disintegrating tissue. b. Spongy bone is formed; osteoblasts become osteocytes when bony matrix completely surrounds them.; osteoblasts beneath the periosteum deposit compact bone around spongy bone.
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