Chemistry Chapter 1

Chemistry Chapter 1 - Chemistry Chapter 1 Chemistry Science...

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Chemistry Chapter 1 Chemistry – Science of the composition and structure of materials and the changes that materials undergo. Experiment – observation of natural phenomena carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated and rational conclusions. Law – Concise statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental relationship or regularity of nature. Hypothesis – tentative explanation of some regularity of nature Theory – tested explanation of basic natural phenomena. Scientific Method – Process of advancing scientific knowledge through observation; the framing of laws, hypotheses, or theories; and conducting of more experiments. Mass – quantity of matter in a material Matter – Whatever occupies space and can be perceived by our senses. Law of Conservation of Mass – Total mass remains constant during a chemical change (chemical reaction). Mass of substances before reaction = mass of substances after reaction Mass vs. Weight – Weight of an object is the force of gravity exerted on it. The weight is proportional to the mass of the object divided by the square of the distance between the center of mass of the object and that of the earth. CLASSIFYING MATTER - By its physical state – solid, liquid gas and by its chemical constitution as an element, compound or a mixture. - Solid – Form of matter characterized by rigidity; relatively incompressible and has fixed shape and volume. - Liquid – relatively incompressible fluid; fixed volume but not fixed shape. - Gas – Form of matter that is an easily compressible fluid; given quantity of gas will fit into any container of almost any shape or size Elements, Compounds and Mixtures - Physical change – change in the form of matter but not in its chemical identity. IE – dissolving something in water - Chemical Change – Change in which one or more kinds of matter are transformed into a new kind of matter or several new kinds of matter Rusting or iron
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- Physical Property – characteristic that can be observed for a material without changing its chemical identity. (color, physical state, melting point) - Chemical Property – Characteristic of a material involving its chemical change. (ability of iron to reach with oxygen to produce rust) Substance – Matter that cannot separated into other kinds of matter by any process. Element – Substance that cannot be decomposed by any chemical reaction into simpler substances. Compound – Substance composed of 2 or more elements chemically combined. Law of Definite Proportions – pure compound, whatever its source, always contains definite or constant proportions of elements by mass. Mixture – material that can be separated by physical means into two or more substances has a variable composition Heterogeneous Mixture – mixture that consists of physically distinct parts, each with different properties. o
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Chemistry Chapter 1 - Chemistry Chapter 1 Chemistry Science...

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