DNA & Chromosome Ch10,12

DNA & Chromosome Ch10,12 - NucleicAcids,...

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Nucleic Acids, DNA and Chromosome Structure Chapter 10 and 12:   Chromosomes are made up of DNA and  Histone proteins. Various proteins dynamically interact with  the DNA and Histone proteins.
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Just some history….. The word  gene  was first used by Wilhelm Johannsen in 1909,  based on the concept developed by Gregor Mendel in 1866  (Mendel 1866).  The word was a derivative of pangene, which was used by  Hugo De Vries for entities involved in pangenesis, Darwin’s  hypothetical mechanism of heredity. The term  chromosome  was first suggested in 1888 by the  German anatomist Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer- Hartz Johann Friedrich Miescher, working in the late 1800s,  separated out what he called "nuclein" from cells (DNA).
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Genetic Material: Nucleic acids or proteins? Prior to 1944: Chromosomes contain genes, which make up the inherited genetic material. Chromosomes were made up of both proteins and nucleic acids. Are proteins or nucleic acids the genetic material responsible for inheritance? Experiments were done to test the hypothesis that DNA, Protein, or RNA was the genetic material which was responsible for inheritance.
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Griffith’s Transformation Experiment Used two different strains of  Diploccus  pneumoniae  (now known as   Streptococcus pneumoniae ) Causes pneumonia/death; Bacteria has a capsule What is the interaction between  the living IIR and heat-killed  IIIS cells? Concept of  Transformation
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1944 Avery MacLeod and McCarty experiment What was  responsible for the  transformation  of  the live avirulent  IIR cells into  virulent IIIS? Experiment from  Avery, MacLeod  and McCarty  addressed this  question.
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Avery, MacLeod and McCarty’s experiment was built upon the results from Griffith experiments Avery, MacLeod and McCarty’s experiment demonstrated that DNA is the transforming molecule What additional evidence supported the hypothesis that DNA was the genetic material? Hershey-Chase Experiment
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Review of the Life Cycle of Bacteria Phage Shown here is the  reproductive cycle of  the bacteriaphage T2  Electron micrograph of  an  E. coli  cell being  infected by numerous  phage
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32 P Labels DNA Radioactive  DNA Hershey-Chase experiment demonstrated that DNA and not protein  was the  genetic material in phage T2.    What about Eukaryotes? 35 S Labels Protein Radioactive  protein coat Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase Experiment
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Direct Evidence: Recombinant DNA Studies Segments of Eukaryotic DNA can be spliced into bacteria DNA. Expression of eukaryotic DNA.
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