30Periodic2

30periodic2

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Unformatted text preview: The Periodic Table The Main groups group numbers indentified by suffix A Main group metals Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Nonmetals Halogens Noble gases Lanthanides transition metals Actinides Lanthanides transition metals Ionization Energy Io Ionization Energy (I) energy required to remove an electron from an atom (or ion) in the gas phase DH° for reaction: X(g) X+(g) + e– DH° : the change in heat energy (kJ/mol) Al: [Ne]3s23p1 Ionization Energies l1 = 580 kJ/mol First ionization energy: Al(g) Al+(g) + e– Second ionization energy: Al+(g) Al2+(g) + e– l2 = 1815 kJ/mol Third and fourth ionization energies: Al2+(g) Al3+(g) + e– l3 = 2740 kJ/mol Al3+(g) Al4+(g) + e– l4 = 11,600 kJ/mol Ionization Energies The large jump in I.E. is the result of removing core electrons which are bound more tightly than valence electrons Third and fourth ionization energies: Al2+(g) Al3+(g) + e– l3 = 2740 kJ/mol Al3+(g) Al4+(g) + e– l4 = 11,600 kJ/mol Ionization Energy Decreases Going Down a Group l1, kJ/mol H Li Na K Rb Cs 1312 520 495 419 409 382 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s Ionization Energy Decreases Going Down a Group l1, kJ/mol He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 2377 2088 1527 1356 1176 1042 1s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p Plot of Ionization Energy Plot of Ionization Energy Ionization Energy Tends to Increase Across a Period Ionization Energy Tends to Increase Across a Period Ionization Energy Tends to Increase Across a Period Ionization Energy Tends to Increase Across a Period anomali...
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