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30Periodic2 - The Periodic Table Main groups group numbers...

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The Periodic Table The Periodic Table
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Main groups group numbers indentified by suffix A
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Main group metals Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals
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Nonmetals Halogens Noble gases
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transition metals Lanthanides
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transition metals Lanthanides Actinides
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Ionization Energy Ionization Energy
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Ionization Energy (I) energy required to remove an electron from an atom (or ion) in the gas phase D H ° for reaction: X (g) X + (g) + e D H ° : the change in heat energy (kJ/mol)
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Ionization Energies First ionization energy: Al(g) Al + (g) + e l 1 = 580 kJ/mol Second ionization energy: Al + (g) Al 2+ (g) + e l 2 = 1815 kJ/mol Third and fourth ionization energies: Al 2+ (g) Al 3+ (g) + e l 3 = 2740 kJ/mol Al 3+ (g) Al 4+ (g) + e l 4 = 11,600 kJ/mol Al: [Ne]3s 2 3p 1
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Ionization Energies The large jump in I.E. is the result of removing core electrons which are bound more tightly than valence electrons Third and fourth ionization energies: Al 2+ (g) Al 3+ (g) + e l 3 = 2740 kJ/mol Al 3+ (g) Al 4+ (g) + e l 4 = 11,600 kJ/mol
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Ionization Energy Decreases Going Down a Group l 1 , kJ/mol H 1312 Li 520 Na 495 K 419 Rb 409 Cs 382 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s
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Ionization Energy Decreases Going Down a Group l 1 , kJ/mol He 2377 Ne 2088 Ar 1527 Kr 1356 Xe 1176 Rn 1042 1s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p
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Plot of Ionization Energy
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Plot of Ionization Energy
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Ionization Energy Tends to Increase Across a Period
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Ionization Energy Tends to Increase Across a Period
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Ionization Energy Tends to Increase Across a Period
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Ionization Energy Tends to Increase Across a Period
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anomalies in I.E. trend
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